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    Archived pages: 1080 . Archive date: 2012-11.

  • Title: WAYNE'S WORD
    Descriptive info: .. Wayne's Word.. Index.. Noteworthy Plants.. Trivia.. Lemnaceae.. Biology 101.. Botany.. Scenic.. Wildflowers.. Trains.. Spiders & Insects.. Search.. Zoom In With Large Monitors:.. For PCs type Control +.. For MACs type Command +.. Latest Wayne's Word Updates.. Images.. copyright and protected.. by encrypted watermarks.. & archival original 35 mm transparencies.. waynesword.. net.. Palomar College Arboretum.. Wayne's Word Calendars.. Fig Symbiosis Links.. Evolution & Origins.. Chemistry Of Life.. Amazing Plants.. Botany & Biology: Incl.. Ecology, Adaptations & Economic Uses of Plants.. Wayne's Word Lectures.. Select A Lecture Topic.. Anza-Borrego Desert #1.. Anza-Borrego Desert #2.. Anza-Borrego Desert #3.. California Flora: Diversity.. Coastal Sage Scrub.. Palomar Arboretum.. Plant Classification #1.. Santa Rosa Brodiaea.. The Sex Life Of Figs.. Mites Living In Your Skin..  .. Monthly Articles.. Quarterly Articles.. Trivia Articles.. Published Articles.. Econ Pl Families.. Stinking Flowers.. California Floristics.. Fungus Index.. Pageviews & Awards.. Lichen Index.. The Following Courses Are Not Offered At This Time.. Click Here: Sign Up For Biology 101 On-line Next Semester.. Click Here: Sign Up For Botany 115 On-line Next Semester.. Sign Up For Botany 110 Botany & ID of Spring Wildflowers.. Google Scholar: Find Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles.. Translate Into Another Language.. Web.. Search Wayne's Word.. Formidable Face.. Search Engines: Find Out More About Wayne's Word Articles.. How To Cite Wayne's Word Articles In Your Research Papers.. How To Print Pages Without Cropping Words On Right Margin.. See The Wayne's Word Top 10 Southern California Wildflowers.. Stores:.. #1.. #2.. #3.. #4.. #5.. #6.. #7.. #8.. #9.. #10.. #11.. #12.. #13.. See The Collection Of Wayne's Word Images Used On Wayne's Gifts.. See Larger  ...   the text fits perfectly (without horizontal scrolling) in classroom data projectors at Palomar College and laptop computers set at 800 x 600 resolution.. We have received hundreds of requests from various organizations, agencies and individuals to use photos and information from Wayne's Word on their web sites and in published newsletters, compact discs, books, etc.. All of the articles and 99.. 9% of all the photos and illustrations in Wayne's Word are copyright protected and may not be used in other on-line, CD or printed publications without our expressed written permission.. This includes the display of our images and illustrations in their original form, or electronically altered form, on other web sites.. For anyone interested in this material, you may place hyperlinks (but no frames) to anchor tags on Wayne's Word pages from your web sites.. Please refer to.. waynes-word.. com.. for information on high resolution.. tif images available for publications.. Send An E-Mail Message To Wayne's Word:.. Due To The Overwhelming Number Of Messages & Spam Sent To Wayne's Word,.. and With A Minimal Staff Of Only Two Humans, Replies May Not Be Forthcoming.. Editor.. MR.. WOLFFIA.. llustrator.. Elaine Armstrong.. Economic Plant Families.. Wayne Armstrong's Life Science Page.. Life Science's Department Home Page.. Palomar College Home Page.. Archived Wayne's Word Pages At Archive.. Com Dating Back To December 2009.. Images on this page: Poison dart frog (.. Dendrobates pumilio.. ), ten-lined june beetle.. (.. Polyphylla decemlineata.. ), blue morpho butterfly (.. Morpho menelaus.. ), & the western.. sheepmoth (.. Hemileuca eglanterina.. ).. All text material & images on these pages copyright W.. P..

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  • Title: Indxwayn
    Descriptive info: Zoom In With Large, High Res Monitors:.. For PCs type Control + For Macs type Command +.. Index Of Topics In Wayne's Word Articles.. Econ.. Plant Families.. Wayne's Bibliography.. Evolution.. Fire.. Arboretum.. Angiosperms.. Drift Seeds.. Lichens.. Chemistry.. Gourds.. Brodiaea.. Find On This Page: Type Word Inside Box;.. Find Again: Scroll Up,.. Click In Box & Enter.. [Try Control-F or EDIT + FIND at top of page].. **Note: This Search Box May Not Work With All Web Browsers**.. A.. B.. C.. D.. E.. F.. G.. H.. I.. J.. K.. L.. M.. N.. O.. Q.. R.. S.. T.. U.. V.. W.. X.. Y.. Z.. Alphabetically Arranged Articles and Topics In WAYNE'S WORD:.. [Also Look Up Plants By Clicking On Economic Plant Families Tab].. Click PDF Icon To Read Page In Acrobat Reader.. See Text In Arial Font Like In A Book.. View Page Off-Line: Right Click On PDF Icon To Save Target File To Your Computer.. Back To Alphabet Table.. Absinthe: An Herb That May Have Poisoned Vincent van Gogh.. Acacias: An Enormous Genus Of Trees & Shrubs.. Acacias & Their Remarkable Symbiotic Ants.. Cecropia Trees & Their Symbiotic Azteca Ant Colonies.. Acacias Browsed By Giraffes In South Africa.. Achiote (Annatto) Dye From Seeds Of Bixa orellana.. Agar: See Intertidal Red Alga Gelidium, Primary Source Of Agar.. Air Fern: A Dead Marine Hydrozoan Dyed Green.. Akee: An Interesting Fruit In The Soapberry Family.. Alaska Trip: Coastal Cities & Denali National Park.. Algae: An Outline Of Major Algal Divisions In The Kingdom Protista.. Algae Photos: Including Green, Red, Brown & Diatoms.. Algae Responsible For Pink Snow.. Algin, Carrageenan & True Gums (Polysaccharides).. Algin: See Giant Bladder Kelp, Primary Source Of Algin.. Alkaloids: Plants Producing Medical Alkaloids & Glycosides.. Alkaloids (Hallucinogens): Peyote, Jimsonweed, Mushrooms & Morning Glories.. Photos Of Alkaloid-Producing Plants.. Poison Dart Frogs Of South American Rain Forest.. See Alkaloid Structure: An Animated.. GIF.. Allelopathy In The Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea biebersteinii).. Allspice, Witch Hazel, Bay Rum & Bay Leaves.. Almond: See Fresh, Green Almonds Right From The Tree.. Amaranth: Edible Leaves & Seeds Which Ground Into Flour.. Amazing Trivia About Plants: Botanical Record-Breakers.. Amber: Nature's Transparent Tomb.. Amorphophallus: World's Largest & Stinkiest Arum.. An Amorphophallus Growing At Wayne's Word.. Anabaena (Cyanobacterium) & Its Symbiotic Water Fern (Azolla).. Anachronisms: Dispersal Of Large Fruits By Large Extinct Mammals.. Ancient Plants: Plants That Lived When Dinosaurs Roamed The Earth.. Ancient Plants: See Links About Plants That Lived With Dinosaurs.. Anther Smut: A Sexually Transmitted Disease Of Flowers.. Antibody Model: Y-Shaped, 4 Polypeptide IgG Immune Type.. Antlions (Denizens Of The Sand).. Evolution of Microsoft vs.. Natural Selection Of Antlions.. Ants: Amazing Insects In The Order Hymenoptera.. Ants1: Argentine Ants.. Ants 2: Argentine Ants & Genetic Variability.. Ants 3: Carpenter Ant.. Ants 4: Harvester Ants & Dyeweed.. Ants 5: Harvester Ants & Pilostyles.. Anza-Borrego Desert Wildflowers (February 2005).. Anza-Borrego Desert Lecture Outline #1.. Anza-Borrego Desert Lecture Outline #2.. Apomixis Defined (Also Parthenocarpy, Parthenogenesis & Agamospermy).. Apples, Pears, Quince, Loquat, Peaches & Apricots.. Apple Smaller Than A Penny? Can This Be True?.. Araucaria Family: Striking Conifers From The Days Of Dinosaurs.. Araucaria: See Beautiful Wood Of Cook Pine (A.. columnaris).. Arbortetum: Go To Palomar College Arboretum.. Arbortetum & Wayne's Word Introduction Links.. Archaebacteria: Possible Life Form On Mars?.. Archeocyathida: Extinct Reef-Building Animals Similar To Sponges.. Argiope: Black & Yellow Orb Weaver Spider.. Arthropods (Insects/Spiders) In Anza-Borrego 1.. Arthropod Index (Insects/Spiders) On Wayne's Word.. Artichokes & Other Vegetables Of The Sunflower Family.. Arum Fruit: The Exotic Monstera Deliciosa.. Ashes To Wildflowers (Post-Burn Plant Succession).. Asparagus: Delicious Garden Vegetable From A Plant Stem.. Aspen Clones: One Of World's Most Massive Organisms.. Asteraceae (Sunflower Family): 2nd Largest Plant Family.. Atkins Diet: Weight Reduction By Eating Fatty Saturated Fats?.. ATP Production In Methanogenic Archaebacteria.. ATP Production In Desert Varnish Bacteria.. Australian Brush Cherry: Colorful But Insipid Fruits.. Avocados, Apples, Pears & Peaches.. Awards Given To Wayne's Word From Major Science Web Sites.. Azolla (Water Fern) & Its Symbiotic Cyanobacterium (Anabaena).. Bacteria (Archaebacteria): A Possible Life Form On Mars?.. Bacteria: Halophilic Bacteria That Thrive In Salt Lakes & Salt Crust.. Bacteria (Kingdom Monera): Syphilis, Gonorrhea & Anthrax.. Bacteria: The Size Of A Minute Flowering Plant.. Bacteria: Thermophilic Bacteria That Thrive In Hot Springs.. Bamboo: Remarkable Giant Grasses.. Bananas: Genetics Of Triploid Seedless Bananas.. Banyans & Strangler Figs: Bizarre Tropical Trees.. Baobab Tree In South Africa.. also see the.. Baobab Fruit.. Barberry: Oregon Grape & A Middle East Berry Used For Raisins.. Barn Owl Images In Bird House.. Bat-Pollinated Flowers Of The African Sausage Tree.. Bat-Pollinated Mucuna Lianas Of The Tropical Rain Forest.. Bay Rum, Bay Leaves,Witch Hazel & Allspice.. Beetles: Insect Order With The Greatest Number Of Species.. Beetles (Order Coleoptera) In Southern California.. Beetles: Wayne's Word Fun With Beetles Page.. Beets, Swiss Chard, Spinach & Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodiaceae).. Bent Nail Puzzle Solved: See Animated GIF.. Betel Nut Palm: Seeds That Are Chewed But Not Swallowed.. Bignoniaceae: An Interesting Family Of Tropical Trees.. Biological Sites On The World Wide Web.. Biology & Botany Course Schedules & Syllabi.. Biology 101 On-Line Course Supplements.. Bird's Nest Fungus (Minute Fungus Resembling Miniature Bird's Nest).. Blackberries, Strawberries, Grapes, Huckleberries & Bearberries.. Black Moss (Fat Choy): A Hairlike Cyanobacterium From China.. Blood Triglycerides & Cholesterol (LDL's & HDL's).. Blood Types (1): Laboratory Determination Of A-B-O Phenotypes.. Blood Types (2): Calculation Of A-B-O Genotypes & Percentages.. Blood Types (3): Models For Blood Agglutination By Antibodies.. Blue Marble Tree: Incredibly Beautiful Fruits.. Boechera (Arabis) holboellii Apomictic Hybrid Pollen Grains.. Botanical Jewelry: Necklaces, Earrings & Bracelets Made From Plants.. Botanical Record-Breakers (Amazing Record-Breaking Plants).. Botany & Biology Course Schedules & Syllabi.. Botany 110 & 115 On-Line Course Supplements.. Southern California Trail Guides by Tom Chester.. San Diego County Plant Checklists For Botany 110.. Endangered Vernal Pools of San Diego County.. Jepson Manual Data Base & Other Information.. Find Latitude & Longitude, Top Maps & Conversions.. Botany 115 Reading Assignments.. Bot Fly: A Remarkable Parasitic Fly On Humans.. Bot Fly: A Remarkable Parasitic Fly On Rodents & Rabbits.. Brain Teaser (Logic Teaser) Questions.. Brassica fruticulosa Range Extension In San Diego County.. Brazil Nuts & Cashews.. Brazilwood & Logwood Dyes.. Bread: Wheat Bread & Why Corn Bread Crumbles.. Breadfruit, Jackfruit, Soursop, Sugar Apple & Cherimoya.. Brodiaea Index:.. To All Brodiaea Pages On Wayne's Word.. Brodiaeas & Vernal Pools In San Marcos (San Diego County).. Bromeliads: Epiphytic Flowering Plants That Trap Rainwater.. Broomrapes: Unusual Flowering Root Parasites.. Brush Cherry: An Interesting Australian Fruit.. Bryophytes: Mosses & Liverworts.. Buckwheat Family Achenes--Dry One-Seeded Fruits.. Bugs (Hemiptera: True Bugs) In Southern California.. Bull's Head (Water Caltrop)--Trapa bicornis.. Burdock: Vegetables Of The Sunflower Family (Asteraceae).. Burlap (Fabric From Stem Fibers Of Jute): See Plant Fibers Page.. Butterflies, Moths & Wasps In Southern California.. Butterfly Exhibit #1: The San Diego Wild Animal Park.. Butterfly Exhibit #2: The Living Desert Zoo & Botanical Garden.. Butterfly Bush (Buddleia) Of The Logania Family (Loganiaceae).. C-4 Photosynthesis In Purslane (Portulaca oleracea).. Cactus Fruit & Stems: Tuna & Nopales From Opuntia ficus-indica.. Cactus Species: Links To Images On Wayne's Word Pages.. Calabash: A Tree With Remarkable Cauliflorous Fruits.. Calavera Lake (Lake Calavera): Carlsbad, California.. Calendar-For Any Month-For Any Year-For Any Century.. Calendars Available From Wayne's Word Via CafePress.. California's Pink Salt Lakes--Caused By Halobacteria.. Calochortus kennedyi: A Beautiful Orange Mariposa Lily.. Camouflage In Animals: Cryptic Form & Coloration.. Camouflage In Leafhoppers (Order Homoptera).. Camphor Oil & Cinnamon From Trees In The Laurel Family.. CAM Photosynthesis In Cacti & Succulents.. CAM Photosynthesis In The Strangling Epiphyte Clusia rosea.. Canada: Canadian Rockies Railway Trip (October 2008).. Canna indica (Indian Shot): Seeds Shot From Guns?.. Cannonball Tree: A Cauliflorous Tree From South America.. Capers: Delicious Flower Buds From A Mediterranean Shrub.. Carambola, Jaboticaba, Banana & Kiwi.. Carat: Unit Of Weight Derived From Carob Seed.. Carbon Balls: Daldinia grandis & D.. concentrica.. Carnivorous (Insectivorous) Plants.. Carob Tree: A Cauliflorous Species & Derivation Of The Word Carat.. Carrageenan, Algin & True Gums (Polysaccharides).. Carrageenan: See Irish Moss, A Source Of Carrageenan.. Carrion Flowers (See Stinking Flowers).. Carrot: Herbs Of The Carrot Family (Apiaceae).. Cashew Nuts & Brazil Nuts.. Cashews: Plants Of The Sumac Family (Anacardiaceae).. Cassava & Taro: Subterranean Vegetables.. Castor Bean: A Plant Named After A Tick.. Catnip or Catmint: An Herb That Drives Cats Crazy.. Caudiciform Plants That Develop From An Enlarged Caudex.. Cauliflory: An Amazing Adaptation For Pollination.. Ceanothus Silk Moth: A Striking Southern California Moth.. Celery: Herbs Of The Carrot Family (Apiaceae).. Cell Division 1: Mitosis In Eukaryotic Cells For Biology 101.. Cell Division 1: Stem Cell Research On In Vitro Blastocysts.. Cell Division 2: Meiosis In Eukaryotic Cells For Biology 101.. Cell Illustrations: Comparison Of Plant & Animal Cells.. Cell Membrane 1: Sandwich Model Of Lipid Bilayer.. Cell Membrane 2: Fluid Mosaic Model & Insulin Resistance.. Cell Structure & Introduction To Metric System For Biology 101.. Cell Structure Introduction: Table Of Cell Sizes.. Cell Towers (Cell Phone Towers) That Resemble Trees.. Cerbera: Southeast Asian Shrubs With Poisonous Fruits.. Cereal Grasses: Photos & Genetics (Rice, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Milo).. Chayote (Sechium edule): A Strange One-Seeded Gourd.. Chemicals: Major Chemical Compounds Of Plants (and Animals).. Cherimoya, Sugar Apple, Breadfruit, Jackfruit & Soursop.. Cherries, Apples, Pears, Peaches & Avocados.. Chicle Gum & Guayule Rubber.. Chicory: A Flavor Enhancing Adulterant Of Coffee.. Chile Peppers (Self Defense With).. Chile Peppers: Sweet & Hot Peppers.. Chile Peppers: The World's Hottest!.. Chi Square Test For Dihybrid (9:3:3:1) Corn Cross.. Cholesterol: Blood Triglycerides, LDL's & HDL's.. Chollas Of Anza-Borrego Desert (Wildflowers 4b).. Chollas Of Anza-Borrego Desert (Wildflowers 4c).. Chollas Of Riverside County (Wildflowers 4d).. Chollas Of Riverside County (Wildflowers 4e).. Chollas Of Riverside County (Wildflowers 4f).. Cilantro & Coriander: Herbs Of The Carrot Family.. Cinnamon & Camphor Oil From Trees In The Laurel Family.. Circassian Seeds (Manjadikuru): Magical Seeds From India.. Cleistogamous Flowers In A European Wildflower.. Cleistogamous Spikelets In A Native Annual Grass.. Clouds (Cumulonimbus) Over Palomar Mountain In September.. Cloves, Allspice, Witch Hazel, Bay Rum & Bay Leaves.. Clusia rosea: An Amazing Strangler Tree That Is Not A Fig.. Cochineal & Saffron Dyes.. Cockleburs--Worldwide Hitchhiker & Nature's Velcro.. Coconut: A Most Interesting & Valuable Fruit.. Coconut Embryo: The Seldom-Seen Embryo Inside A Coconut.. Coconut Pearl: An Alleged Calcareous Stone Inside Coconuts.. Coconut Pearl: Disclaimer On The Authenticity Of This Gem.. Coconut Spathe: Beautiful Bowls Made From Coconut Spathes.. Coconuts & The Remarkable Dispersal Of Coconut Crabs.. Coco Plum, Mammee Apple, Pomegranate & Persimmon.. Codons: Table Of DNA Base Triplets, RNA Codons & Anticodons.. Coffee, Sugar Cane & Pineapples.. Coin Flip Page: Randomized Tossing Of A U.. Penny.. Collections: A Note About Collectors & Collections.. Color Blindness Table: Check Your Vision.. Colors 1: Chart of 216 Colors In 6 Character HTML Code.. Colors 2: Wheel of 216 Colors In 6 Character HTML Code.. Compact Disks: Damaging, Non-Viral Agents That Ruin CDs.. Computer Viruses (Compared With Human Viruses).. Cook Pine (Araucaria columnaris): A Tree From New Caledonia.. Coral Tree (Erythrina): Bright Red Seeds Used In Plant Jewelry.. Coral Trees (Erythrina): Ocean Dispersal, Pollination & Floral Variation.. Conkers: A Game Where You Break Your Opponent's Nut.. Continental Drift (Plate Tectonics) & Plant Geography.. Coriander & Cilantro: Herbs Of The Carrot Family (Apiaceae).. Corn Genetics: Dihybrid Cross, Linkage & Chi Square Test.. Corn: Origin Of Corn From Ancestral Teosinte "Madre de Maíz".. Crabwood (Carapa guianensis): A Costa Rican Timber Tree.. Cranberry: A North American Shrub Of Acidic Bogs & Swamps.. Crane Flies: The Most Misidentified Flies In Southern California.. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Drought Resistant Plants.. Crickets: Remarkable Tree Crickets Of The Genus Oecanthus.. Cross-Dating: Age-Dating Wood Samples By Comparing Annual Ring Patterns.. Crossword Puzzles For Biology & Botany Students & Other People.. Cryptantha Species: Index Of Images On Wayne's Word.. Cryptobiotic Crust In Anza-Borrego Desert State Park.. Cucumber, Pickle & Cucumber Gourds.. Cucumber Tree With Cauliflorous Fruits.. Curare: A South American Vine With A Very Toxic Sap.. Currants & Gooseberries, Blackberries, Strawberries & Huckleberries.. Cyanobacteria Living On A Maya Pyramid In Guatemala.. Cyanobacteria: Nitrogen-Fixing Cells Living Inside Other Plants.. Cyanobacteria Living Inside A Crustose Pacific Northwest Lichen.. Cyanobacteria Living Inside The Coralloid Roots Of Cycads.. Cyanobacteria (Anabaena) Living Inside The Water Fern (Azolla).. Cyanobacterium (Anabaena) & Its Marriage To A Water Fern (Azolla).. Cycads (1): Ancient Plants That Lived With Dinosaurs.. Cycads (2): Ancient Plants That Lived With Dinosaurs.. Cycads: Continental Drift & Worldwide Distribution Of Cycads.. Cypresses (Cupressus): Remarkable Conifers Native To California.. Cypresses (Cupressus): Selection & Genetic Drift In Cypresses.. Daikon & Other Vegetables In The Mustard Family.. Daley Ranch Rock Formations (San Diego County).. Dandelion: Vegetables Of The Sunflower Family (Asteraceae).. Dates: Delicious Fruits From A Dioecious Palm.. Dawn Redwood--Ancient Tree That Lived With Dinosaurs.. Deadly Datura (Jimsonweed).. Deadly Datura (Jimsonweed) Junkie Moth.. Death Valley: A Place To See Endemic Plants.. Desert Varnish & Lichen Crust On Rocks.. Desiderata: Words To Live By.. Devil's Claws: Hitchhikers On Big Animals.. Dinosaurs: Plants That Lived When Dinosaurs Roamed The Earth.. Dioscorea--Tropical Yam & Source Of Steroid Percursor Diosgenin.. Discovery Bay--Central & Northern California June 2004.. Dispersal Of Fruits & Seeds By Wind, Water & Animals.. Dispersal Anachronisms: Dispersal Of Large Fruits By Large Extinct Mammals.. Dispersal Of Seeds & Fruits: See.. ,.. Hitchhikers.. &.. Wind Dispersal.. Dispersal Of Seeds With Elaiosomes By Ants (Myrmecochory).. Dispersal--Mechanical Dispersal Of Seeds By Creeping Woodsorrel.. Dispersal--Mechanical Dispersal: Exploding Pods Of The Sandbox Tree.. Diversity Of Flowering Plants.. Diversity Of The Five Kingdoms Of Life.. Diversity Of The Major Divisions Of Life.. Divisions (Phyla) Of Living Organisms.. DNA (1) Plastic Model: Biology 101 Quiz.. DNA (2) Structure & Function (Biology 101).. DNA (3) PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction.. DNA (4) Animated Exponential Replication.. DNA (5) Simplified Animation Of Transcription.. DNA (6) Simplified Animation Of Translation.. DNA (7) Simplified Animation Of Protein Synthesis.. Dragon Fruit (Cactaceae: Hylocereus undatus).. Drift Seeds & Fruits: Voyagers Of The World's Oceans.. A Nice Assortment Of Tropical Drift Fruits & Seeds.. Dispersal Of The Coconut & Coconut Crab.. Mary's Bean: Fabulous Drift Seed Of The New World Tropics.. Nickernuts (Caesalpinia bonduc & C.. major).. Prioria copaifera: Costa Rican Tree With Amazing Drift Fruits.. Sea Beans (Mucuna): A Liana Pollinated By Bats.. Sea Hearts (Entada gigas): Giant Liana Of The Rain Forest.. Duckweeds (Lemnaceae)--incl.. Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia & Wolffiella:.. Complete List Of All North American Species.. Flow Chart Dichotomous Key To Lemnaceae In California.. Images Of All North American Species.. Index & Keys To The Genera Of Lemnaceae.. Smallest Flowering Plant In The World.. Smallest Fruit In The World.. Weird Duckweeds From Far Away Lands.. World's Smallest Flowering Plant Compared With Bacterium.. Durian: An Enormous, Spiny Fruit From Malaysia With A Delicious Flavor.. Dyes 1 (Natural Dyes):.. Madder.. Cochineal.. Saffron.. Woad.. Lichen.. , &.. Achiote.. Dyes 2 (Natural Dyes): See.. Brazilwood.. Logwood.. Red Sandalwood.. Earth Star: An Unusual Fungus Superficially Resembling A Star.. Eastern Sierra Nevada Trip: Owens Valley, June Lake, Mono Lake.. Economically Important Plant Families (For Botany 115 Plants & People).. Economically Important Plant Families (List Of Families for Botany 115).. Echinacea & Other Herbs From The Sunflower Family (Asteraceae).. Ed Groschwitz: In Memory Of My Dear Friend Ed.. Eggfruit & Mamey Sapote (Pouteria campechiana & P.. sapota, Sapodilla Family).. Eggplant, Tomato & Tomatillo (Nightshade Family: Solanaceae).. Eggs: The Undisputed Largest Cells On Earth.. Enzymes: Lock & Key Model & Enzyme Block By Poison Molecule.. Ephedra (Mormon Tea or Joint Fir): See The Amazing Plant Division Gnetophyta.. Ergot Fungus--The Original Source Of LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethyl Amide).. Erythrina: Go To.. Coral Tree References.. Under "C".. Eucalyptus: Hardwood "Gums" Introduced Into Southern California.. Eucalyptus Musical Instrument: The Aboriginal Didgeridoo.. Eucalyptus: See Red Gum Lerp Introduced Into Southern California.. Eucalyptus Wood-Boring Beetle Introduced Into Southern California.. Euphorbia Family: A Large & Very Diverse Family Of Flowering Plants.. Evolution Topics Are Discussed Throughout Many Wayne's Word Articles.. Adaptive Radiation On The Hawaiian Islands.. Comparison Between Plant & Animal Cells.. Convergent & Parallel Evolution (Homoplasy).. Evolution & The Origin Of Life Controversy.. Evolution Of Dioecious Fig Species.. Evolution of Humans (1): Dr.. Dennis O'Neil, Palomar College.. Evolution of Humans(2): Origin Of Clothing & Body Lice.. Lichens & The Evolution Of Land Plants.. Symbiogenesis & The Endosymbiont Hypothesis.. Symbiogenesis & The Origin Of A Protonucleus From A Virus.. Faculty Award For Excellemce In Teaching At Palomar College.. Fasciated Stems (Weird Malformed Stems).. Fats: Chemistry Of Unsaturated Plant Oils.. Fennel: Herbs Of The Carrot Family (Apiaceae).. Ferns & Fern Allies (Pteridophtes).. Ferns: Fern Fiddleheads For Food.. Ferns: Indigenous Hawaiian Ferns.. Ferns: Water Ferns (Azolla & Salvinia).. Fiber: Insoluble  ...   Nikon D-40x Images (Part 2).. Nikon D-40x Images (Part 3).. Nikon D-40x Images (Part 4).. Nikon D-40x Images (Part 5).. Nikon D-40x Images (Part 6).. Nikon D-90 Images (Part 7).. Nitrogen Fixation In The Roots & Leaves Of Plants:.. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria In Root Nodules Of Legumes.. Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria In Coralloid Roots Of Cycads.. Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria In Water Fern (Azolla).. Noni (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae): The Remarkable Painkiller Tree.. Nori (Porphyra): The Remarkable Red Alga Used For Food In Asia.. Nutmeg Fruit: The Source Of Two Different Spices.. Nuts: Botanical Definition & Photos Of Representative Examples.. Oaks In San Diego County (Scrub Oaks & Hybrids).. Oats, Rice, Wheat, Barley, Rye, Triticale & Sorghum.. Oils: Chemistry Of Unsaturated Plant Oils.. Olives, Peaches, Pears, Apples & Avocados.. Ombu (Umbu): An Amazing Tree From The Argentine Pampas.. Onion Bulbs & Why They Make You Cry.. Opium Poppy: Selected Images (Latex Oozing From Pod).. Optical Illusions On Your Computer Monitor.. Orchid Flower: Details Of The Remarkable Structure.. Oregon & Northern California Road Trip 2010.. Outstanding Teacher Award At Palomar College.. Owens Peak ("P" Mountain) North Of Palomar College.. Painted Lady: A Migratory Butterfly In Southern California.. Palm Fruits: Pejibaye, African Oil Palm, Saw Palmetto, Jelly Palm, Betel Nut.. Palm Thatching For Roofs: The Bayleaf Palm Of Belize.. Palms: The Source Of Vegetable Ivory From The Seeds.. Palms: The Swamp Palm (Raphia taedigera) Of Costa Rica.. Palms: The Infamous Wine Palm Of Chile.. Palomar College Arboretum Plant List & Map.. Palomar College Arboretum Images 1 (Palms).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 2 (Bamboos).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 3 Agaves).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 4 (Conifers).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 5 (Legumes).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 6 (Trees 1).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 6b (Trees 2).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 7 (Shrubs 1).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 7b (Shrubs 2).. Palomar College Arboretum Images 8 (Wildflowers).. Palomar College Palomar College Arboretum Lichens.. Palomar Mountain Fungi: Carbon Balls, Satan's Bolete, Morel, Helvella.. Palo Verde Wash (1): Anza Borrego Desert State Park.. Palo Verde Wash (2): Anza Borrego Desert State Park.. Panama Hat Palm (Carludovica palmata).. Papaya, Durian, Mango & Hog Plum.. Paper Made From Plant Fibers & Wood Pulp.. Paper Made From Textile Fibers: See Torn U.. Dollar Bill.. Paper Wasp & Its Papier-Mâché Nest.. Paradise Nut: One Of The Monkey Pot Trees Of South America.. Parasitic Flowering Plants: Nature's Most Bizarre Blossoms.. Parasitic Flowering Plant That lives Inside Another Plant's Stem.. Parmentiera edulis: An Interesting Cauliflorous Tree.. Parsnip: Herbs Of The Carrot Family (Apiaceae).. Parthenocarpy Defined (Incl.. Stimulative & Vegetative Parthenocarpy).. Parthenogenesis Defined (Also Apomixis & Agamospermy).. Passionflower Fruit & Remarkable Blossom.. PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction For Replicating DNA.. Peanut: A Fascinating Subterranean Legume.. Pears, Peaches, Apples, Apricots, & Avocados.. Penis Sheath--A Most Unusual Use For A Gourd.. Pennies As Size Relationships In Wayne's Word Images.. False Penny Used As Size Relationship.. Penny Used In Random (50-50) Coin Flip.. Penstemon Hybrids In San Diego County.. Peppers (1): Chile Peppers--Self Defense With Pepper Spray.. Peppers (2): Chile Peppers--Sweet & Hot Peppers.. Peppers (3): Black Peppers & Kava Kava Root.. Pepper Trees (Schinus molle & S.. terebinthifolius) Of South America.. Percent Increase & Decrease Calculated in JavaScript.. Periodic Chart Of Elements: Determining # Of Protons & Neutrons.. Persimmon (Black Persimmon) Also Called Black Sapote.. Persimmon, Pomegranate, Mammee Apple & Coco Plum.. Petrified Forest National Park In Arizona.. Taxonomic Problem With Araucarioxylon arizonicum.. Petrified Wood In The Western United States.. Peyote Cactus & Mescal Bean.. Phallus Impudicus #1: A Fungus That Resembles A Penis.. Phallus Impudicus #2: A Fungus That Resembles A Penis.. Photosynthesis, Transpiration & Cellular Respiration.. Phyla (Divisions) Of The Kingdoms Of Life.. Phytoliths In Grass Cells & Dinosaur Poop.. Pickle Cucumber & Cucumber Gourds.. Pilostyles--Minute California Relative Of World's Largest Flower.. Pineapples, Sugar Cane & Coffee.. Pistache (Chinese Pistache): Beautiful Tree With Autumn Foliage.. Pistachio Nut: Technically A Botanical Drupe.. Pinyon Mountain: Anza-Borrego Desert State Park.. Plant Classification Lecture For Palomar College Arboretum.. Plant Distribution & Continental Drift (Plate Tectonics).. Plant Kingdom--Diversity Of Five Kingdoms Of Life.. Plant Kingdom--Diversity Of Flowering Plants.. Plant Kingdom--Diversity Of The Major Divisions.. Plant Lists For San Diego County (Incl.. Jepson Manual Information).. Plant Sexuality (Plant Political Correctness).. Plasmids: Crown Galls & Transgenic Plants.. Plate Tectonics (Continental Drift) & Plant Geography.. Pokeweed (Poke Salad): An Interesting Vegetable.. Poison Hemlock & Water Hemlock: Relatives Of The Carrot.. Poison Oak--More Than Just Scatching The Surface.. Pollination: Amazing Insect-Flower Interrelationships.. Strategies For Insuring Cross Pollination.. Bat-Pollinated Mucuna Lianas Of The Rain Forest.. Coral Trees (Erythrina) & Hummingbirds.. Deadly Datura (Jimsonweed) & Its Moth.. Fig & Symbiotic Fig Wasp Articles.. Milkweed Blossom (Asclepias): Family Asclepiadaceae.. Mimulus (Monkeyflower): Thigmotrophic Stigma.. Stinking Flowers (Carrion Flowers) That Attract Flies.. Yucca & The Symbiotic Yucca Moth.. Contact Pollination In Ribbon-grass (Vallisneria).. Contact Pollination In The Duckweed (Lemna gibba).. Links To Waynes Word Articles About Pollination.. An Orchid Flower That Resembles An Insect.. Polygenic Inheritance: Kernel Color In Wheat & Human Skin Color.. Polyploidy & Hybridization: Interesting Plant Hybrids In San Diego County.. Pomegranate, Persimmon, Mammee Apple, Mamey Sapote & Coco Plum.. Popeye® The Sailor & The Ingestion Of Spinach Leaves Through His Pipe.. Poppy: Minute Southern California Poppy (World's Smallest).. Population Growth Exercise & Questions For Biology 100 Lab.. Potato: A Tuberous Plant From The Andes Of South America.. Potato Bug Of Southern California: Also Known As Jerusalem Cricket.. Power (The Power Of Plants)--Amazing Forces Of Imbibition.. Prions: Protein Molecules That Cause Mad Cow Disease.. Prionus: A Large, Long-Horned Beetle In Southern California.. Probability (1) Examples With Coins, Dice and Cards.. Probability (2) Random Coin Flipper Using JavaScript.. Protozoans (Kingdom Protista): Images Of The Four Major Phyla.. Pteridophytes: Vascular Plants Without Seeds.. Pterocarpus: Interesting Legume Tree Used For Hardwood & Red Dye.. Puffballs: Giant Puffballs Of The Genus Calvatia.. Purslane: A Plant With C-4 Photosynthesis.. Puzzles: Crossword, Horseshoe, Bent Nail, Wari Board Games.. Quillaja saponaria: Soapbark Tree (In Soap Lily Article).. Quince, Pears, Peaches, Apples, Cherries, Jujube & Avocados.. Quizzes: Wayne's Word Tutorial Quizzes.. Rafflesia arnoldii: World's Largest Blossom.. Rambutan, Lychee, Longan & Guaraná.. Raspberries, Blackberries, Strawberries, Grapes & Huckleberries.. Record-Breaking Plants: Botanical Record-Breakers.. Resins: See Photos Of Natural Resins & Incenses From Plants.. Resins (Terpenes) & Gums (Polysaccharides) In The Sap Of Plants.. Resurrection Plant: Selaginella lepidophylla (Division Lycophyta).. Rhubarb: Vegetable From A Leaf Petiole Used In Pies.. Rice, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Rye, Triticale & Sorghum.. Root & Stem Microscopic (Cellular) Anatomy.. Rose Apple Fruits & Beautiful Blossom (Myrtle Family--Myrtaceae).. Rose Hips & Other Fruits Of The Rose Family (Rosaceae).. Rubber-Producing Plants: Guayule Rubber & Chicle.. Rye, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Triticale, Rice & Sorghum.. Saffron & Cochineel Dyes.. Sages (Salvia) In California.. Salt Lakes: Pink Color Caused By Halobacteria.. Sandalwood: An Interesting Parasitic Tree.. Sandalwood: Red Sandalwood Used For A Dye.. Sand Dunes: A Phenomenon Of Wind.. [Incl.. Amazing Dune Plants & Animals].. Sand Grains.. Tropical Beach Sands Made Of Corals & Calcareous Algae].. San Marcos Gabbro In The San Marcos & Merriam Mountains.. San Marcos Mts: An Interesting Range In N.. San Diego County.. Santa Lucia Fir: A California Conifer With Bizarre Seed Cones.. Margarita Peak In Northern San Diego County.. Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve: Brodiaeas.. Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve: Wildflowers.. Santa Rosa Plateau (1): Rock Formations On The Plateau.. Santa Rosa Plateau (2): Rock Lichens On The Plateau.. Santa Rosa Plateau (3): Santa Rosa Basalt & Endemic Brodiaea.. Santiago Peak Volcanic Rock In San Marcos, San Diego County.. Sapote (Black Sapote)--An Interesting Fruit In The Ebony Family.. Sapote (Mamey Sapote)--An Interesting Fruit In The Sapodilla Family.. Sapote (White Sapote)--An Interesting Fruit In The Citrus Family.. Sarah's Wobbling Wheel Home Page.. Sassafras: Flavoring From Deciduous Tree Of The Eastern U.. Satan's Bolete Mushroom (Boletus satanas).. Saw Palmetto: An Endemic U.. Palm & Potentially Valuable Herb.. Scat (Animal Dropping) Collection From The Rocky Mountains.. Scenic Image Index On Wayne's Word.. Scorpion: See Large Scorpion Of Southwestern United States.. Sea Balls (Ruppia) Of California & Algae Balls (Marimo) Of Japan.. Sea Beans (Mucuna): Drift Seeds From Bat-Pollinated Lianas.. Wild Sea Beans In The Hawaiian Islands.. Sea Beans: Drift Seeds That Resemble Miniature Hamburgers.. Seagrape, Grapes, Blackberries, Strawberries, Huckleberries & Bearberries.. Sea Dragons From Coastal Waters Of Southern & Eastern Australia.. Seagrasses: Marine Flowering Plants That Live Submersed In Oceans.. Sea Heart (World's Longest Bean Pod & Remarkable Drift Seed).. Sea Hearts Used As A Musical Shaker Instrument.. Sea Shell Display In Shadow Box (Assorted Mollusks & Echinoderms).. Seaweed (Kelp) Photos: Including Green, Red & Brown Algae (Also Agae Products).. Seed & Fruit Dispersal: See.. Seeds Bearing Elaiosomes Dispersed By Ants (Myrmecochory).. Seeds Dispersed From Exploding Pods Of The Sandbox Tree.. Seeds For Jewelry (From Seeds, Amber & Vegetable Ivory): See.. Jewelry.. Seeds: World's Largest & Smallest (Palms & Orchids).. Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica): A Plant With Rapid Leaf Movement.. Sequoia Trip (Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks).. Sesame (Sesamum indicum): Economic Plant Photographs #44.. Sexual Suicide (Male Gender Inequity & Exploitation).. Shellac: See Resinous Excretions Of The Lac Insect Called Seed Lac.. Silk From A Silkworm Larva That Feeds On Mulberry Leaves.. Silver Sword 1: An Amazing Hawaiian Endemic Related To A Tarweed.. Silver Sword 2: A Tarweed In The Same Subtribe As The Silver Sword.. Size Relationships Used In Wayne's Word Images.. Skin Cancer #1 Removed From Left Nostril & Ala.. Skin Cancer #2 Microscopic Images Of Ala Tissue.. Skin Cancer #3 Basal Cell Carcinoma On Forehead.. Slime Molds: Kingdom Fungi, Division Myxomycota.. Slime Molds: Photos & Animated Gif Image.. Slime Molds: See Wayne's Word Fungus Article.. Smallest Flowering Plant Vs.. A Bacterium.. Sony DSC-T9 & T10 Photography Tips.. Sony DSC-T9 Orb Weaver Spider Images.. Sony DSC-TX5 Using The Twilight Mode.. Sony DSC-HX9v Using Twilight Mode & Zoom.. Sony DSC-W300 Mounted on Microscope.. Snow Hippo--A WAYNE'S WORD Exclusive.. Snow: Pink Snow That Smells Like A Watermelon.. Soapberry Family: Some Very Interesting Fruits & Seeds.. Soap Lilies In California--Bulbs Used For Soap (Also Photos Of Soapberry).. Soursop, Breadfruit, Jackfruit, Sugar Apple & Cherimoya.. Sperm: Photo Images & Illustration Of Human Spermatozoa.. Sphinx Moth That Feeds On Desert Wildflowers.. Sphinx Moth That Feeds On Jimsonweed (Datura).. Spiders & Allies In Southern California.. Spiders At Wayne's Word (Common Orb Weaver Spider).. Spinach, Beets, Swiss Chard & Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodiaceae).. Spinach: Did Popeye® Smoke The Leaves Of This Vegetable In His Pipe?.. Spinning Wheel Animated Gif Image #1.. Spinning Wheel Animated Gif Image #2.. Spittle Bug: An Interesting California Insect That Secretes A Froth Nest.. Sponge Gemmules & Bryozoan Statoblasts The Size Of Wolffia Fruits.. Star Apple: An Interesting Tropical American Fruit.. Starbucks: Insect Visitors At Starbucks Across From CSUSM.. Statoblasts & Gemmules That Resemble Seeds & Fruits Of Wolffia Plants.. Stem & Root Microscopic (Cellular) Anatomy.. Stem Cells Of Embryos & Cell Division (Mitosis).. Steroids From The Tropical Yam (Dioscorea).. St.. Johnswort: An Herb To Treat Depression.. Stinging Hairs (Trichomes): See.. Mala Mujer.. Mucuna.. Nettle.. Flatulence & Why Carrion Flowers Stink.. Stinking Corpse "Lily"--World's Largest Flower.. The Stinkiest & Largest Arum On Earth.. The Stinkiest Arum At Quail Botanical Gardens.. Stinking Fungi That Attract Blow Flies & Flesh Flies.. Strangler Figs & Banyans: Truly Remarkable Trees.. Strawberries, Blackberries, Grapes, Huckleberries & Bearberries.. Strawberry Tree (.. Arbutus unedo.. ): An Interesting European Fruit.. Stromatolites: Fossils Of Ancient Colonies Of Cyanobacteria.. Living Stromatolites In Anza-Borrego Desert State Park.. Sugar Apple, Breadfruit, Jackfruit, Soursop & Cherimoya.. Sugar Cane, Pineapples & Coffee.. Sumac Family (Anacardiaceae): Representative Plant Images.. Sunchoke or Jerusalem Artichoke: Sunflower With Potato-like Tubers.. Sunflower Family (Asteraceae): The Largest Plant Family.. Sunflower & Safflower Oils From Achenes Of The Asteraceae.. Surinam Cherry: An Exotic Fruit From South America.. Sweet Potato: Root Crop From The Andes Of South America.. Sycamore Trees (Platanus racemosa) In Twin Oaks Valley.. Symbiogenesis: Genomic Mergers & Evolution.. A Theory For The Origin Of Vascular Plants.. Symbiosis: A Marriage Between Two Or More Organisms.. Wayne's Word Hyperlinks About Symbiosis.. Tamarind: A Delicious Tropical Legume Fruit.. Tardigrades: Minute Animals That Live On Mosses & Lichens.. Taro & Cassava: Subterranean Vegetables.. Taxodium Family (Taxodiaceae): Redwoods, Pond Cypress & Giant Sequoia.. Tea: Black & Green Teas (Tea Family: Theaceae).. Tea: New Zealand Tea Plant (Myrtle Family: Mytaceae).. Tea: Yerba Mate Tea (Holly Family: Aquifoliaceae).. Telomeres & End Replication Problem In DNA.. Teosinte: The Ancestor Of Modern Corn.. Terminology Of Flowers (Part 1).. Terminology Of Flowers (Part 2).. Terminology Of Inflorescences (1).. Terminology Of Fruits (Part 1).. Terminology Of Fruits (Part 2).. Terminology Of Fruits (Part 3).. Terminology Of Fruits (Part 4).. Terminology Of Leaves (Part 1).. Terminology Of Leaves (Part 2).. Termites In Southern California.. Textiles: Fibers From Plants For Cordage & Textiles.. The Five Kingdoms Of Life.. Theory, Hypothesis & Law Explained & Compared.. Tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) Embedded in Abdomen.. Tick (Ixodes): A Deer Tick in Monterey County.. Tomato GIF & JPG Comparison Photos.. Tomato, Tomatillo & Eggplant (Solanaceae).. Tonka Beans (Dipteryx odorata): A Source Of Coumarin.. Tragacanth Gum From A Spiny Iranian Locoweed.. Trains: Index Of Passenger & Freight Train Pages.. Transgenic Plants, Introns, Exons & Transposons.. Transpiration, Guard Cells & Stomata On Leaves.. Transposons (Jumping Genes) In Indian Corn.. Travertine Palms Wash: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Trilobite: An Extinct Cambrian Trilobite From Utah.. Trivia About Plants: Botanical Record-Breakers.. Tropical Fruits #1: Carambola, Jaboticaba, Banana & Kiwi.. Tropical Fruits #2: Durian, Papaya, Mango & Hog Plum.. Tumbeweed (Russian Thistle): Naturalized Weed From Eurasia.. Turmeric: An Exotic Spice With Very Beautiful Flowers.. Tung Oil Tree, Candlenuts & Kukui Nuts.. Turions: Overwintering Bodies On Some Species Of Duckweeds.. Twin Oaks Valley Animal Visitors in 2011.. Umbu (Ombu): An Amazing Tree From The Argentine Pampas.. Unicorn Plants: Hitchhikers On Big Animals.. Unknown Plants: Drawings For Botany 110.. Vanilla Orchid: Source Of A Delicious Spice.. Vegetable Ivory--From Ivory-Nut Palm.. Vegetable (World's Largest).. Vegetables (1): Kohlrabi, Broccoflower, Brussels Sprouts, Rutabaga, Onion, Leek.. Vegetables (2): Asparagus--A Delicious Garden Vegetable From A Plant Stem.. Vegetative Terminology (Leaves 1): Types, Arangement, Venation, etc.. Vegetative Terminology (Leaves 2): Shapes, Apices, Margins, etc.. Vegetative Terminology (1): Modified Roots, Stems & Leaves.. Vegetative Terminology (2): Types Of Spines & Thorns.. Vegetative Terminology (3): Phyllodes & Cladodes (Modified Leaves & Stems).. Velcro : An Amazing Invention From Hitchhiking Plants.. Velvet Mite Of The Colorado Desert Of Southern California.. Verde River Valley, Arizona (June 2009).. Vernal Pools In San Marcos (San Diego County) & Brodiaea Species.. Viruses (Human Viruses Compared With Computer Viruses).. Viviparous Seeds & Viviparous Animals.. Agaves With Viviparous Plantlets.. Ferns With Viviparous Plantlets.. Grasses With Viviparous Plantlets (Bublets).. Mangroves With Viviparous Seeds.. Viviparous Animals That Bear Live Young.. Volcan Mountain Wildflowers--San Diego County.. Wari (Board Game Played With Caribbean Nickernuts).. Water Caltrop or Water Chestnut (Ling Chio)--Trapa bicornis.. Watermelon: Genetics Of Triploid Seedless Watermelons.. Watermelon Snow: Pink Snow That Smells Like A Watermelon.. Water Ferns: Azolla & Salvinia (Salviniaceae).. Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica): An Aquatic Morning Glory.. Waxes: See Photos Of Natural Waxes From Stems & Leaves.. WAYNE'S WORD Staff.. Dichotomous Key To The Hippo Staff.. Elaine Armstrong--Computer Graphics Artist.. History Of The WAYNE'S WORD Hippo Staff.. Portrait Of Mr.. Wolffia (Editor) & Elaine Armstrong (Computer Artist).. Portrait Of The WAYNE'S WORD Hippo Staff & Their Relatives.. Wayne P.. Armstrong's Bibliography Page.. Armstrong's Biography Page.. Armstrong's Page In Life Science Department, Palomar College.. WAYNE'S WORD History Crossword Puzzle.. WAYNE'S WORD T-Shirt: Official Hippo Staff T-Shirt.. Welwitschia: A Remarkable Gymnosperm From Africa's Namib Desert.. Wheat, Rice, Barley, Oats, Rye, Triticale & Sorghum.. Wigandia: An Interesting Tropical Shrub At Palomar College.. Wildflower Index To All Wildflower Pages On Wayne's Word.. Wind Dispersal Of Seeds & Fruits.. Blowing In The Wind: Seed & Fruit Dispersal.. Plumose Styles Of Mt.. Mahogany & Cliff Rose.. Witch Hazel, Allspice, Bay Rum & Bay Leaves.. Wood: Cross-Dating Wood Samples By Comparing Annual Ring Patterns.. Wood: Hardwood & Ironwood Trees (Including Wood That Sinks In Water).. Wood: General Wood Structure & Microscopic (Cellular) Anatomy.. Wood: Logs Sawed At The Mill At Palomar College.. Xerarch Succession By Lichens On Bare Rock.. Yam (Dioscorea)--World's Largest Vegetable.. Yellow Bay, Montana: Derivation Of The Common Name.. Yerba Mate: South American Drink Sipped From A Gourd.. Yerba Santa & Yerba Mansa: Medicinal Herbs From California.. Yew (Pacific Yew Tree): The Source Of Taxol.. Yucca & Yucca Moth: Amazing Story Of Pollination.. Zigadenus: Star Lilies & Death Camas (In Soap Lily Article).. Ziricote: Beautiful Caribbean Hardwood In The Borage Family.. Return To The WAYNE'S WORD Home Page.. Return To The NOTEWORTHY PLANTS Menu.. Return To The Biology GEE WHIZ Trivia Menu.. Go Back To The LIFE SCIENCE HOME PAGE..

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  • Title: Wayne's Word Noteworthy Plants
    Descriptive info: Gif/.. jpg images.. by encrypted watermarks and.. archival original 35 mm transparencies.. staff.. Monthly and Quarterly Articles.. Articles By Year.. To Speed Up Page Loading, Turn Off Image Display In Browser: Click On Image Icon To View Individual Image.. n the spirit of sharing information on the fabulous Internet Superhighway and the quest for knowledge,.. WAYNE'S WORD.. is featuring quarterly and monthly articles about little-known and unusual plants of the world.. These are mostly plants brought to Professor Armstrong by curious students who wanted to know more about them, or perhaps wanted to get a better grade in biology.. Monthly articles will appear from time to time and are listed by the month that they first appear in reverse chronological order.. Longer articles about various botanical subjects will be published on a nonregular, quarterly basis.. Many of these topics are based on articles by W.. Armstrong that appeared.. in numerous natural history publications.. See List Of Published References.. Monthly Wayne's Word Noteworthy Plants Articles:.. See Quarterly Articles Under.. and.. [Look Up A Wayne's Word Monthly Article By.. Year.. ].. November 1999:.. Parasitic Flowering Plants.. October 1999:.. Stranglers And Banyans: Amazing Figs.. September 1999:.. Hardwoods: Trees With Hard Wood.. August 1999:.. Acacias: Huge Genus Of Trees & Shrubs.. July 1999:.. June 1999:.. The Calimyrna Fig & Its Pollinator Wasp.. May 1999:.. Pollination: The Truth About Cauliflory.. April 1999:.. March 1999:.. February 1999:.. Blowing In The Wind: Seed Dispersal.. January 1999:.. Vegetable Ivory From Tropical Palms.. December 1998 (.. 3.. ):.. Ocean Drift Seeds and Fruits.. 2.. Unusual Costa Rican Drift Fruit.. 1.. Soap Lilies In California.. November 1998:.. Strange Marriage Of A Water Fern.. October 1998:.. An  ...   April 1996:.. March 1996:.. World's Smallest Flowering Plant.. February 1996:.. The World's Smallest Fruit.. January 1996:.. The World's Largest Fruit.. December 1995:.. A New Filbert/Rubber Tree Hybrid?.. October 1995:.. A Horny Bull's Head.. Quarterly Wayne's Word Articles:.. See Monthly Articles Under.. [Look Up A Wayne's Word Quarterly Article By.. Fall 2000:.. The Huge And Diverse Sunflower Family.. Summer 2000:.. The Yucca & Its Pollinator Moth.. Spring 2000:.. Botanical Jewelry From Seeds & Fruits.. Winter 2000:.. Morning Glories: Most Beautiful Vines.. Fall 1999:.. Plants That Lived With The Dinosaurs.. Summer 1999:.. Poison Oak: An Immune Response.. Spring 1999:.. Winter 1999:.. Fall 1998:.. Alkaloids: Plants That Make You Loco.. Summer 1998:.. New World Amber: A Transparent Tomb.. Spring 1998:.. Sexual Suicide: Male Gender Inequity.. Winter 1998:.. Nature's Recovery After Wild Fires.. Fall 1997:.. Island Wari: Board Game Played With Seeds.. Summer 1997:.. Stinking Flowers That Smell Like Carrion.. Spring 1997:.. Botanical Record-Breakers: Plant Trivia.. Winter 1997:.. The Amazing Kingdom of Fungi.. Fall 1996:.. The Gourd Family: Plants With Big Fruits.. Summer 1996:.. The Beetles: Every 5th Living Thing.. Spring 1996:.. The Role Of Figs In The World's Religions.. Winter 1996:.. Plant Sexuality & Political Correctness.. Fall 1995:.. Argentine Ants: You Will Be Assimilated.. Summer 1995:.. Viruses: Take Care Of Your Hard Drive.. Spring 1995:.. Chile Peppers: Self Defense & Seasoning.. Winter 1995:.. Africanized Honey Bees: A Brief Synopsis.. Fall 1994:.. Mountain Lions: What To Do If You See One.. Go To The WAYNE'S WORD Home Page.. Go To The LEMNACEAE ON-LINE Page.. Go To The Biology GEE WHIZ Trivia Page.. Go To Publication Update For This Site.. Click Counter Box To See Number Of Hits For This Web Site:..

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  • Title: Biology/Botany Trivia
    Descriptive info: Biology & Botany.. Amazing Trivia.. To Speed Up Page Loading, Turn Off Image Display In Browser: Click On Image Icon To View Image.. General Index.. |.. Look Up Articles By Year.. Latest Articles.. Biology 100.. Lemnaceae On-Line.. Awards.. BioWebSites.. Presenting a lot of complex subject matter to a classroom of students.. can sometimes be very frustrating, particularly when everyone in the.. back row is sound asleep.. To maintain attentive audiences, it is often.. beneficial to interject amazing facts into high-memory-load lectures.. Disclaimer: Although most of the gee-whiz trivia presented here are based on facts, we may include some fantastic propositions and preposterous mathematical projections that are impossible to observe, difficult (if not  ...   the number of bacteria would exceed the total number of electrons in some models of the visible universe.. How could this astronomical mass of bacteria (composed partly of electrons) exceed the number of electrons available to construct the bacteria? This may be a false proposition, but it shows how fast bacteria multiply rather nicely.. Wayne's Word Trivia Articles:.. More Articles Under.. [Look Up A Wayne's Word Trivia Article By.. March 2002:.. Silk From A Silkworm Larva.. November 2001:.. Major Animal Phyla.. Plant Fibers: Textiles.. The Anatomy Of Wood.. Stem And Root Anatomy.. Major Botanical Divisions.. Some WAYNE'S WORD Puzzles.. Return To The WAYNE'S WORD Home Page.. Return To The NOTEWORTHY PLANTS Page..

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  • Title: The Lemnaceae (Duckweed Family)
    Descriptive info: Home.. Keys To Genera.. List Of Species.. Lemna.. Spirodela.. Wolffia.. Wolffiella.. DNA Comparisons Show That Duckweeds Belong To Subfamily Lemnoideae Within The Araceae.. Duckweed Genera In Jepson Manual by W.. Duckweeds In Flora Of North America by E.. Landolt.. Key To Genera.. List of Species.. List of Images.. Gee-Whiz.. Armstrong 2011; Latest Update 10 July 2012.. Important Plant Taxonomy Links.. Search The Kew Plant List.. International Plant Names Index.. Links On This Page.. Some Notes On The Identification Of Duckweeds.. A Brief Technical Description Of The Lemnoideae.. Aerenchyma: Tissue With Intercellular Air Spaces.. Bisexual Flowers & One-Seeded Fruits Of Duckweeds.. Some Generalizations About The Duckweed Subfamily.. Stomata On The Upper Surface Of Duckweed Species.. The Leaflike Prophyllum Of Spirodela & Landoltia.. Winged Root Sheath In Two Species Of Lemna.. Cladograms Of The Duckweeed Subfamily (Lemnoideae).. Controversies Over.. Landoltia.. ).. punctata.. Updated Key To The Five Genera Including Landoltia.. ID Of Species That Are Morphologically Very Similar.. Nerves (Veins) & Air Spaces In Duckweed Identification.. Dorsal Papules Separating L.. turionifera From L.. minor.. Importance Of Backlighting When Identifying Duckweeds.. Elongated Tract Of Cells (Costa) In Wolffiella ID.. Photoperiodism (Day Length) In The Duckweed Subfamily.. Aseptic (Axenic) Culture Of Duckweeds In Agar Media.. Control Of Duckweed Blooms In Ponds And Reservoirs.. Wayne's Word & Lemnoideae On-Line Copyright Policy.. Additional Links On Other Pages:.. Index And Keys To The Genera Of Lemnoideae.. List Of All Western North American Species.. Flow Chart Of All Western North American Species.. Worldwide List Of All Species Of Lemnoideae.. View Images Of All North American Species.. Identification Of Duckweeds By Mr.. Identification Of Duckweeds On Herbarium Sheets.. Identification Of Duckweeds From Minnesota (1).. Identification Of Duckweeds From Minnesota (2).. Wolffia: The World's Smallest Fruit.. Statoblasts & Gemmules That Resemble Seeds.. Wolffia: The World's Smallest Flowering Plant.. Nutritious, Low Fat, Wolffia Gourmet Dishes.. See Wayne's Word Wolffia Herbarium Sheet.. How To Cite Wayne's Word Articles In Reports.. Publication Updates For Lemnaceae & Wayne's Word.. The Charms Of Duckweed.. by Dr.. John Cross: Information and illustrations about anatomy, population.. growth, laboratory projects, and practical applications using duckweeds for waste water reclamation.. Some Notes On Duckweed Identification.. ince flowering and fruiting are rarely observed in most species of Lemnaceae, the following keys and descriptions are based primarily on vegetative characteristics.. Minor traits which might seem insignificant in morphologically complex plants assume greater importance in the Lemnaceae.. Ideally, it is best to observe living plants under a 30X dissecting microscope, preferably with substage lighting to view veins and the shape of budding pouches (dried herbarium specimens can be hydrated in water to obtain a resemblance of their former shape).. For difficult species it is often necessary to grow them in containers to observe the development of diagnostic features such as shape, size, number of plants cohering, nervation, anthocyanin pigmentation and turions.. Some species may exhibit considerable morphological variation, particularly when growing under less than optimal environmental conditions, making their precise vegetative identification very difficult.. A flowering.. Wolffia microscopica.. next to the tip of a sewing needle.. The unusual golf tee shape is unique among all wolffia species.. A minute stamen can be seen protruding from the upper (expanded) side of the plant body.. See Straight Pin & Sewing Needle Used In Wayne's Word Articles.. A Brief Technical Description Of The Duckweed Family.. uckweeds are small aquatic herbs floating on or below the surface of quiet streams and ponds, often forming dense, homogeneous clonal populations.. The plant body is not differentiated into a stem or leaf.. It is reduced to a fleshy or thalluslike ovoid or flattened structure bearing one-several roots (without root hairs) on the underside, or rootless.. The terms dorsal and ventral are often used in the literature for the upper and lower surfaces of the plant body floating in water.. The terms adaxial and abaxial are typically used for leaves, referring to the surface adjacent to the leaf axil (adaxial) and the opposite surface away from the leaf axil (abaxial).. Adaxial and abaxial also refer to the upper and lower sides of a leaf; however, the abaxial side is also the back or dorsal side.. This terminology is especially appropriate for leaves arranged vertically on a stem.. Since the plant body of a duckweed is not technically a leaf, the terms adaxial and abaxial are confusing for general descriptions.. For duckweeds it is preferable to use upper and lower surface.. [Thanks to Elena George of Humboldt State University for bringing this to my attention].. he plant body often has one-several layers of conspicuous air spaces (aerenchyma) and one-several veins (nerves).. Daughter plants are produced in a budding pouch at the basal end or along the 2 lateral margins of parent plant, often remaining attached to parent plant by a short stipe.. Some species produce rootless (or very short-rooted), starch-filled daughter plants, called turions that sink to the bottom and overwinter.. Flowers are bisexual and usually protogynous, the androecium consisting of 1 or 2 stamens and the gynoecium consisting of a single pistil.. The flowers are produced in a floral cavity on the dorsal surface (.. ), or in a membranous, saclike spathe (utricular scale) within a lateral budding pouch (.. Some authorities consider duckweed species to be monoecious with one or two staminate flowers (each consisting of a single stamen) and a pistillate flower (consisting of a single pistil).. There is no corolla or calyx.. The ovary is superior and unilocular with a short style and circular concave stigma.. The stigma often secretes a fluid droplet at anthesis.. The stamen has a short filament and unilocular or bilocular anther, transversely or apically dehiscent, bearing spinulose pollen grains.. The fruit an indehiscent, bladderlike utricle containing one-several seeds with prominent operculum.. he traditional duckweed family (lemnaceae) contains 5 genera and at least 38 species.. DNA studies indicate that duckweeds are best included within the Araceae.. Duckweeds have a worldwide distribution, especially temperate and tropical regions.. They are the smallest and structurally simplest of all angiosperms, with greatly reduced vascular tissue (tracheids) limited to the veins of plant body, filaments of stamens, and roots of some species.. Duckweeds and associated microfauna are an important food source for certain waterfowl.. They are potentially valuable for waste-water reclamation and one species, (.. Wolffia globosa.. (Roxb.. ) Hartog Plas) known locally as.. khai-nam.. , is eaten by people in S.. Asia.. Major References On The Taxonomy Of Duckweeds:.. Landolt, E.. 1986.. "The Family of Lemnaceae: A Monographic Study" (Vol.. 1).. Veroff.. Geobot.. Inst.. ETH.. , Stiftung Rubel 71.. and R.. Kandeler.. 1987.. 2).. 1957.. "Physiologische und okologische Untersuchungen an Lemnaceen.. ".. Ber.. Schweiz.. Bot.. Ges.. 67.. : 271-410.. Aerenchyma tissue in the duckweed.. Lemna minuta.. (1000x).. The large intercellular spaces are surrounded by layers of choroplast-bearing parenchyma cells.. The air-filled spaces provide buoyancy for the duckweeds, keeping them afloat on the water surface.. Although enlarged air spaces may provide a competitive advantage for increased buoyancy, some species have greatly reduced air spaces and float below the water surface.. Dorsal view of.. Lemna gibba.. in full bloom.. Two stamens and a short style are projecting from a lateral budding pouch at the base of the plant.. The androecium consists of two pollen-bearing stamens.. The gynoecium consists of a single pistil with a concave stigma, slender style and basal ovary bearing a one or two ovules.. The bisexual flower is enclosed within a membranous saclike spathe within the budding pouch.. Note: Some authorities consider the duckweeds to be monoecious species with one or two staminate flowers (each consisting of one stamen) and one pistillate flower (consisting of a single pistil) on the same plant body.. Dorsal View of the Bisexual Flower of Landoltia punctata.. Lateral view of flowering.. Wolffia borealis.. showing the dorsal floral cavity containing one anther-bearing stamen and one pistil (gynoecium).. The pistil has a seed-bearing ovary, a slender (short) style and a circular, concave stigma.. The flowers are protogynous, with the stigma becoming receptive before the anther matures and sheds pollen.. A daughter plant protrudes from a funnel-like budding pouch at the basal end.. The entire flowering plant is only one millimeter (1/25th of an inch) in length.. It weighs approximately 200 micrograms (roughly 1/150,000 of an ounce).. Dorsal view of several budding.. The floral cavity on the dorsal side reveals a circular concave stigma (nearest the basal end) and a single, pollen-bearing anther.. Unlike.. , the flower is not enclosed within a membranous spathe.. The far right plant shows only the stigma, while the far left plant shows only the anther.. The top and bottom plants show both the stigma and a faint anther.. Wolffia Plants Are The Size Of Candy Sprinkles.. See Candy Sprinkles Used For Decorating Cakes & Cookies.. Utricles of the duckweed family (Lemnaceae).. The utricle is a small, bladderlike, thin-walled fruit.. It is often compared with a one-seeded achene, except the utricle has a pericarp that is loose and fragile.. Because of their small size (usually only 1-2 mm or less), utricles of the duckweed family are seldom seen.. In fact, the one-seeded utricles of.. species are the undisputed smallest fruits on earth.. The smallest are from the Australian.. angusta.. and the Asian/African.. globosa.. The world's smallest fruits are produced by species of.. , including the Australian.. The above image shows a mature fruit within the plant body.. The larger fruit of.. shows a thin, transparent pericarp surrounding a ribbed seed.. A pericarp layer is not evident on the wolffia fruits.. Germinated seeds of.. Lemna perpusilla.. showing seedlings with attached seeds.. Seeds Of A Duckweed (Lemna perpusilla).. Seedlings Of A Duckweed (Lemna perpusilla).. wo of the.. species included in Landolt's 1986 Monograph of the Lemnaceae (Vol.. 1) have each been split into two species (E.. Landolt, 1994,.. ETH, Stiftung Rubel 60.. The justification for two additional.. species is based on allozyme studies by D.. J.. Crawford, Columbus, Ohio (Crawford, D.. Landolt, 1995, Allozyme Diversity Among Species of.. (Lemnaceae),.. Plant Systematics & Evolution.. 197: 59-70).. South African populations of.. ) Hartog Plas are now recognized as.. cylindracea.. Hegelm.. , an older name used in the literature since Hegelmaier (1868).. The widespread Asian.. (also from California and southern Florida) has been retained as.. Populations of.. Landolt in Pakistan and India have been named.. neglecta.. The Malaysian and Australian populations of.. have been retained as.. In addition, a new species of.. from the Amazon Basin has been named.. caudata.. Landolt (E.. Landolt, 1992,.. ETH, Stiftung Rubel 58.. The specific epithet for this latter curious species refers to the tail-like, tapering distal end of the plant body (See.. :.. Another new species of.. yungensis.. ) was also described by Landolt from vertical wet rocks of the Andean Yugas in Bolivia (E.. Landolt, 1998,.. Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH 64.. Les and D.. Crawford (1999) have proposed the new genus.. containing one species.. , formerly.. Spirodela punctata.. This species is morphologically intermediate between.. According to Les & Crawford, it represents an isolated clade distinct from both.. [Les, D.. and D.. Crawford.. 1999.. "Landoltia (Lemnaceae), A New Genus of Duckweeds.. Novon.. 9: 530-533.. ] These revisions raise the total worldwide number of taxa in the Lemnaceae to 38 species in five genera.. Mudmidgets (.. Wolffiella lingulata.. ) in full bloom.. This is a dorsal view showing several broad, lingulate (tongue-shaped) plants with their free ends curved downward (recurved) in the water.. Each plant has an immature yellow anther protruding from a floral cavity.. The lower plants show a minute circular stigma adjacent to the anther.. The plants are about 7 mm in length.. The genus.. includes some of the most bizarre of all flowering plants.. Although the generic name for mudmigets refers to the diminutive of.. , they are not as small as.. species.. A juice strainer filled with.. The thousands of recurved, lingulate plants resemble translucent green leaves or shavings.. See More Images Of Wolffiella Species.. Detailed Description Of The Genus Wolffiella.. See Complete List Of All Species Of Lemnaceae.. Some Generalizations About The Duckweed Family.. he duckweed family is well represented in western North America with nearly half of the world's species.. The plant body of duckweeds is quite unlike other flowering plants because it does not have stems or leaves.. It represents the ultimate in reduction of an entire vascular plant.. The terms frond and thallus are sometimes used in the literature, but these terms are not appropriate because the plant body of duckweeds is not homologous to the fronds of ferns or the body of fungi and algae.. Although the body of duckweeds does have paired guard cells and stomata on its upper surface and superficially resembles a leaf (particularly the flattened duckweeds.. ), it is morphologically and embryonically completely different.. In.. it is a flattened structure with slender, hairlike roots on the underside.. are unique among duckweeds because of a minute, membranous scalelike leaf (prophyllum) enveloping the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the basal end.. Spirodela polyrrhiza.. the prophyllum is visible on young plants (fugacious in older plants) and on overwintering turions.. This basal portion and its connecting stalk correspond to a condensed shoot that has become greatly reduced through evolution.. has a reduced prophyllum that perishes in full grown plants.. A prophyllum is lacking in.. The latter two genera have been reduced through evolution to minute, rootless spheres or flattened ribbons.. has a minute globose or ovoid body one mm long or less.. the thalluslike body is transparent and flattened, with the free ends often curved downward in the water.. Magnified view (1000x) of the upper surface of.. showing a pore slit (stoma) flanked by two slender guard cells.. The cells surrounding the stoma resemble the subsidiary cells of true leaves.. Although the plant bodies of duckweeds have stomata and carry on gas exchange with the atmosphere, they are not homologous to leaves.. See Stomata & Subsidiary Cells Of A True Leaf (.. Tradescantia.. Turion of.. Note the minute, transparent, bractlike leaf called a prophyllum at the basal end.. The prophyllum overlaps both the dorsal and ventral sides of the turion, but is more visible on the lower (ventral) surface.. The prophyllum of.. Landoltia punctata.. is much smaller.. If the prophyllum is homologous to a leaf in its embryonic origin, then it is one of the world's smallest leaves.. See Prophyllum On Turions Of Spirodela polyrrhiza.. Ventral side of a hydrated herbarium specimen of.. A budding pouch in the parent plant bears a younger, daughter plant extending horizontally to the right in photo.. The daughter plant shows a scalelike prophyllum that is penetrated by two roots.. The ventral prophyllum is very difficult to see without careful examination under a dissecting microscope.. A prophyllum is present in the genera.. It is a membranous, scalelike leaf that envelops the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the basal end, but usually is not evident in older plants.. The prophyllum portion and its connecting stalk are homologous to a condensed shoot that has become greatly reduced through evolution.. More advanced genera, such as.. lack a prophyllum.. Underside of a hydrated herbarium specimen of.. showing a small, scalelike prophyllum at the basal end of a daughter plant.. This species has 7-12 or more roots, with one or two roots passing through the ventral prophyllum.. Most of the roots are outside the margin of the prophyllum.. The prophyllum is more evident on young daughter plants.. are the only duckweed genera with a prophyllum.. This scalelike, basal leaf is absent in the more advanced genera, including.. lthough all species of.. have a basal root sheath near the attachment node, two species in section Alatae (.. aequinoctialis.. perpusilla.. ) have a distinctive root sheath with 2 lateral wing-like appendages.. Underside of.. Lemna aequinoctialis.. showing winged root sheath near the basal attachment node.. This species has one prominent apical papule on the upper side.. The seeds have 8-26 distinct ribs and generally fall out of fruit wall at maturity.. The closely-related.. of the eastern United States also has a root sheath with 2 lateral wing-like appendages at the base.. It has seeds with 35-70 indistinct ribs, remaining within fruit wall after ripening.. Dorsal Apical Papule & Seeds Of L.. Papules & Winged Root Sheath Of Lemna perpusilla.. longated tracts of cells called nerves are present in.. They originate at the node (point of root attachment) and extend through the plant body toward the distal (apical) region.. A similar tract of elongated cells (called the costa) can be seen in the triagular budding pouch of.. The position of the coasta in relation to the budding pouch is an important characteristic used to separate.. lingulata.. from.. oblonga.. Tracts of elongated cells also extend through the center of the roots of.. Nerves and tracts of elongated cells may serve to transport minerals and sugars, similar to the function of veins.. In some species of.. , the elongated cells of nerves contain tracheids with ring-shaped or spiral-shaped thickenings in the walls (annular tracheids).. These elongated cells are not called veins because the plant bodies of duckweeds are not homologous to leaves.. See Illustration Of Two Species Of Wolffiella.. See Photo Image Of The Nerve Of Lemna valdiviana.. 4.. Cladogram Of The Duckweed Family.. ifferent genes within the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles (chloroplast and mitochondria) can be used to construct phylogenetic trees called cladograms.. One gene in the nucleolus codes for the smaller subunit of the ribosome.. The gene is called SSU rDNA or small subunit ribosomal DNA.. Base sequences from this gene are sometimes used to compare taxa at the species level.. Chloroplast DNA, including the protein-coding rbcL gene, is often used at the family level to show the relationships between genera and species within the family.. Introns are also used to construct family trees.. Introns are sections of messenger RNA that are removed prior to translation at the ribosome.. Illustration Of Plant and Animal Cells.. Large and Small Subunits Of A Ribosome.. Other Topics For General Biology Students.. Other Topics For General Botany Students.. ost botanists consider the Lemnaceae to be closely related to the arum family (Araceae), and comparative chloroplast DNA studies have confirmed this taxonomic affinity (Duvall, et al.. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.. Vol.. 80, 1993).. In fact, several authorities have proposed some drastic and significant changes in the classification of many traditional angiosperm families, including the placement of all duckweeds in the Araceae rather than the Lemnaceae.. [See: Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.. 1998.. "An Ordinal Classification For The Families Of Flowering Plants.. 85: 531-553; Judd, W.. , C.. Campbell, T.. Kellogg and P.. Stevens.. 2002.. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach.. Sinauer Associates, Inc.. , Sunderland, MA.. Some of these proposed changes are summarized in an article by E.. Dean in.. Fremontia.. 30 (2): 3-12, 2003.. If accepted by the botanical community, the incorporation of these changes into botany textbooks, floras, checklists and herbarium collections will be a formidable task.. omputer-generated evolutionary trees or cladograms have been used to show the taxonomic relationships of duckweed species within the family.. The cladograms are based on thousands of data characters, including morphology, anatomy, flavonoids, allozymes, and DNA sequences from chloroplast genes and introns.. The branch (clade) length and position in the tree correspond to the number of character differences between taxa.. The characters are numerically weighted according to their evolutionary importance.. For example, a root would have a higher value than a papule.. Cladograms are generated multiple times, and they don't always come out the same.. The term "bootstrapping" refers to a cladogram or phylogenetic tree that comes out the same way out of a total number of times.. For example, one thousand cladogram "trees" are generated and the same pattern comes out 900 times.. This cladogram would have a bootstrap value of 90 percent.. The following cladogram shows all the five genera and 38 species within the duckweed family (Lemnaceae).. It was generated from DNA sequences of rbcL genes from all known members of the the family using the computer program PAUP:.. A cladogram of the duckweed family based on the chloroplast gene rbcL.. Five genera and 38 species are shown.. According to the cladogram, the ancestral genus is.. and the genus.. is placed farthest away because it has the fewest shared characters with.. are more closely related, while.. have more characters in common.. With the exception of one new genus.. and a few changes within sections of the family, most of the results are consistent with previous studies based solely on morphological characteristics made by meticulous botanists.. Cladogram modified from Les, D.. , Crawford, D.. , Landolt, E.. , Gabel, J.. D.. Kimball.. "Phylogeny and Systematics of Lemnaceae, the Duckweed Family.. Systematic Botany.. 27 (2): 221-240.. See The Chemical Structure Of Flavonoids.. ecause of their degree of reduction, Landolt (1986) considers the two diminutive genera.. to be the most recently evolved offshoots in the phylogeny of this family.. has the fewest shared characters with the presumed ancestral.. and is placed farthest away in an evolutionary tree (cladogram).. The new genus.. is morphologically intermediate between.. According to D.. Les & D.. Crawford (.. 9: 530-533, 1999), it represents  ...   sunlight, plant bodies of.. are often only 2 mm long and are connected clusters of two.. One of the most difficult duckweeds to identify in the field is the growth form of.. found in shady habitats.. The plant bodies are often connected in clonal clusters of four and are slightly longer than typical.. growing in full sunlight.. The shade form of.. can be separated from.. by the extent of the nerve.. The obscure nerve of.. only extends about 1/2 the distance from the node to apex.. Veins (Nerves) and Air Spaces.. Lemna validiviana.. with backlighting, showing extent of nerve in relation to node (point of root attachment) and apex of plant body.. The single nerve extends beyond the midpoint to about 3/4 of the distance between the node and apex.. The nerve clearly extends beyond the region of air spaces (aerenchyma tissue).. These characteristics rule out.. , at least the typical form that grows in full sunlight.. , the nerve rarely extends beyond the aerenchyma tissue and only extends about half the distance from the node to apex.. These may seem like relatively minor morphological differences, but DNA sequencing studies clearly separate these two closely-related species.. General shape and extent of nerve in.. compared with.. Plants of.. are connected in clonal clusters of four to seven, while in.. the plants are typically connected in two's.. Each daughter plant is connected by a short stalk (stipe).. ote: Sometimes placing difficult species in an observation dish and examining them over several days can be helpful.. Digital images can also bring out subtle differences.. The following duckweeds were photographed through a dissecting microscope using a Sony digital camera with backlighting:.. Three duckweeds from Pinnacles National Monument in central California.. Lemna minor.. : Three veins arising from point of root attachment (n), without dorsal row of papules and reddish anthocyanin on ventral side (as in.. ) and without winged root sheath (as in.. : One faint vein extending more than 3/4 distance from root node (n) to apex (red arrow), plant body very thin and transparent throughout and floating on or just below water surface (slipping under plant bodies of.. in an observation dish).. : One vein extending less than 2/3 distance from root node (n) to apex, vein not extending beyond region of larger air spaces (red arrow), plant body slightly thicker in middle (not as uniformly thin and transparent as.. ), small size (only 1-2 mm long) or larger when growing in shade, floating on water surface (not submersed as in.. valdiviana.. Photo taken with substage illumination.. Ventral view of.. showing a single vein that extends 3/4 of the distance between the node (point of root attachment) and apex of the plant body.. According to Landolt, this is one of the most reliable characteristics to separate it from.. because of the variability of these two species under different growing conditions.. This specimen was placed on a microscope slide with cover slip and photographed through a Bausch & Lomb microscope with a.. Sony W-300.. The aerenchyma tissue shows up better when all the water under the cover slip has allowed to dry.. The image was inverted to a "negative" with PhotoShop to show the extent of the vein.. Image Of Typical Lemna valdiviana Growing In The Shade.. Image Of Typical Lemna minuta Growing In Full Sunlight.. Using Dorsal Row Of Papules To Separate.. Lemna turionifera.. From.. nother difficult group of duckweeds is.. has three main veins and is superficially similar to.. and nongibbous.. gibba.. It differs from.. in having a row of 3-7 minute papules along the midline of the dorsal surface.. It also differs from.. by developing reddish anthocyanin on its underside, starting in the region around the root.. What really sets this species apart from other duckweeds is the presence of rootless, overwintering turions in the fall months.. These are referred to as "winter buds" in the.. Jepson Manual of California Plants.. (1996).. appears to be more common than.. in San Diego County.. It generally replaces.. in the higher elevations.. Unfortunately, reddish anthocyanin and turions are not always present, so you must rely on the row of papules along the midline of dorsal surface.. This can be difficult to see, especially on dried herbarium specimens.. Ideally, herbarium specimens should include field notes on the presence of a dorsal row of papules and reddish anthocyanin on the ventral surface.. With some practice, these traits can be observed with a hand lens.. Left: Ventral view of.. showing blotches of reddish anthocyanin, especially in the root region.. is typically not suffused with red anthocyanin.. Nongibbous.. generally lacks the dorsal row of papules and often develops anthocyanin on its upper side.. Right: Dorsal view of.. showing midline row of minute papules.. typically does not have a distinct row of papules, although it may have minute apical and/or nodal papules.. from Moose Lake, Minnesota.. The plant body has a distinct midline row of dorsal papules and is suffused with reddish anthocyanin.. (apparently) from Clearwater Lake.. It does not have midline row of dorsal papules and does not have reddish anthocyanin.. Some plants identified as.. had a minute apical papule.. 1975.. "Morphological Differentiation and Geographical Distribution of the.. -.. Group.. Aquatic Botany.. 1: 345-363.. Approximate view of.. through a 20x hand lens.. Without turions and reddish anthocyanin on the underside, it is difficult to distinguish this species from.. In fact, they were once referred to as.. minor I.. minor II.. , respectively, by Landolt.. Both species are common in western North America, although.. may be more common, particularly in colder regions.. This view shows the characterisitic midline row of minute papules on the upper (dorsal) surface.. typically has a smooth surface without multiple papules arranged in a row.. The papules are fairly distinct on fresh samples, but dried specimens should be hydrated.. The term "bump" rather than papule in the.. Jepson Manual.. is unfortunate.. Go To Images Of Lemna turionifera.. Identification Of Dried Duckweeds1.. Identification Of Dried Duckweeds2.. 8.. Importance Of Backlighting For Duckweed Identification.. hen identifying duckweed species (especially.. ), it is very important to view the plant bodies with backlighting (substage illumination) in order to see the number and the extent of the nerves.. With a good 10x hand lens this can be accomplished by holding the plant body up against the bright sky.. Backlighting is also crucial in order to see the tract of elongated cells (costa) in the budding pouch of.. The position of the costa within the triangular budding pouch is very important in order to distinguish between.. Illustration of.. With backlighting the shape of the budding pouch and relative position of the costa can be observed.. the budding pouch angle is 80 to 120 degrees, with the costa situated between the middle and edge of the lower wall of the pouch.. the budding pouch angle is 40 to 70 degrees, with the costa situated along the edge of the lower wall of the pouch.. Without backlighting under a microscope or good quality hand lens, it is virtually impossible to see these characteristics.. Illustration modified from photos by W.. 1993.. In.. The Jepson Manual of Higher Plants of California.. , J.. M.. Hickman, Editor.. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.. Dorsal views of.. The left image has illumination from above and below.. The right image has only substage illumination.. To observe the number and position of nerves, it is best to use substage illumination only.. The lateral dark bodies at the base of the mother plant are overwintering starch-filled bodies called turions.. Because the specific gravity of starch is about 1.. 5, the turions sink to the bottom of quiet streams and ponds during the fall where they survive the freezing winter months.. In the spring when the temperatures are once again suitable for growth, the turions produce bubbles of carbon dioxide and rise to the surface.. They give rise to daughter plants by budding, and soon clonal colonies of this remarkable duckweed once again cover the water surface.. Without turions, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish this species from the closey related.. The dorsal surface of.. has a row of minute papules along the midline which are absent in.. In addition, blotches of reddish anthocyanin sometimes develop on the ventral surface of.. which are absent from the underside of.. , the greatest (widest) distance between the 2 lateral veins is near the middle or above (distal).. In the above image it is so close to the midpoint that this chararacteristic is not that useful.. Transparent view of.. from Clearwater Lake, Minnesota.. Another characteristic used to separate.. is the relative position of greatest distance between the lateral veins (inner lateral veins): In.. the widest point is near the middle of the veins or below (proximal).. it is near the middle or above (distal).. Since the widest distance can be near the middle in both species, this trait is not always that useful.. Images of Lemna turionifera.. See Image of Lemna minor.. n these times of high technology, as botanical research moves toward a molecular emphasis, it is very important to have specimens verified by a taxonomist.. It is also imperative to have carefully prepared voucher specimens on file in a nationally recognized herbarium.. Modern molecular techniques, such as DNA sequencing, may lead to a better understanding of these fascinating species.. 9.. Photoperiodism In The Duckweed Family.. lthough some duckweed species superficially resemble each other, they may have significantly different biochemical patterns, such as an entirely different photoperiodism in response to day length (hours of darkness).. During the hours of daylight the protein leaf pigment called phytochrome 730 (P-730) is formed.. During the hours of darkness P-730 is slowly converted into phytochrome 660 (P-660).. In short-day plants P-730 inhibits flowering.. Short-day plants typically need about 15 hours of darkness to convert all the P-730 present at sundown into P-660.. In these plants, P-660 stimulates the release of the essential flower stimulant florigen which induces flowering.. The P-660 pigment is very sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, and a flash of light during the 15 hours of darkness can instantaneously convert all the P-660 back into P-730.. is clearly a short-day plant because it requires 16 hours of darkness (8 hours of light) to flower.. is also a short-day species that exhibits maximum flowering with 13-18 hours of darkness, and no flowering with 9 hours of darkness (15 hours of light).. These species will generally not bloom during the longest days of summer or in a pond next to a bright street light.. ong-day plants require 15 hours of daylight and 9 hours of darkness in order to flower.. In these plants P-730 stimulates the release of florigen and subsequent flowering.. If the nights are long enough to convert all the P-730 into P-660, no florigen will be released and flowering will not occur.. is a long day plant that flowers with 9 hours of darkness.. This species typically flowers during the longest days of summer.. It will generally not flower with 12 hours of darkness, such as at the equator or during the vernal equinox, because the nights are too long.. The physiology of these long-day and short-day species of duckweeds can definitely affect their range and potential for flowering and seed production.. xactly how some duckweed species are dispersed and how they survive intermittent streams and ponds that dry up during summer is an enigma.. Being carried from pond to pond on the feet of water fowl (tucked neatly under the ducks' bodies during flight), probably explains the distribution of some species.. In the southeastern United States there are records of wolffia plant bodies being carried by a tornado, and they have even been reported in the water of melted hailstones! Some species have been carried by rivers and streams, and in the shipment of fish and aquarium cultures.. Professor Dr.. Elias Landolt (1997) discusses some of the ways duckweeds survive dry conditions (.. Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH, Stiftung Rubel 63.. Seeds of all Lemnaceae investigated so far tolerate drying for at least a few months to several years; however, seeds are rarely produced by clonal populations of some species.. Although vegetative plant bodies are unable to withstand desiccation for more than a few hours, they may survive days (or weeks) embedded in wet mud and debris.. According to Dan Richards (.. The Distributional Ecology Of Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) In Local Populations Of Northern California.. , MA Thesis, Humboldt State University, 1989), vegetative plants of two species survived up to six hours of desiccation (out of water).. The two species tested by Richards (1989),.. , had a much higher survival percentage when they were in large clumps compared to individually dried plants.. Richard's experiments clearly show that these species could easily be carried short distances by migratory water fowl.. Species that do not readily form seeds can also survive weeks or months of drought as turions, especially if the turions are imbedded in mud, silt and debris.. This is especially true of the minute turions of.. According to Landolt (1997), the South African.. Wolffia cylindracea.. may survive seasonally dry ponds for at least 16 months if the minute turions are firmly imbedded in clayey soil.. 10.. Axenic Culture Of Duckweeds In Nutrient Agar.. The following methods are summarized from E.. Landolt and R.. Kandeler (1987): "The Family.. of Lemnaceae: A Monographic Study (Volume 2).. ETH 95.. : 1-638.. pecies of Lemnaceae can be grown aseptically in nutrient agar similar to the methods used in plant tissue culture.. The transfer techniques are similar to bacterial cultures using a flamed inoculation loop.. The plants must first be cleansed (sterilized) before transfer to the sterile agar.. Plants connected in clonal clusters should be separated from each other.. Individual plants should be dipped in a 0.. 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite (10% Clorox or Purex solution) for at least one minute, washed in aseptic distilled water, and then transferred to an aseptic nutrient solution containing 1% sucrose (see recipe for Hutner's solution below).. Contamination by fungi will show up in this dilute sugar solution within several days.. If all the plants die, or if the solution becomes cloudy or covered by fungi, the treatment must be performed again.. Plants that survive may be transferred to another aseptic nutrient solution containing 1% sucrose, 0.. 5% casein amino acids and 0.. 004% yeast extract.. This solution will reveal contaminations at once.. According to Landolt (1987), about 1-10% of the plants normally succeed in staying alive and become aseptic.. Some species (such as.. ) may need more attempts than others.. Plants that survive this sterilization technique (and are not contaminated or infected by fungal molds) can be transferred to an aseptic nutrient agar in test tubes or Petri dishes.. One of the best nutrient solutions for preparing the agar is 20% Hutner's solution (see table below).. The mineral components of Hutner's solution are similar to some commercial plant tissue culture media.. McClure ("Taxonomic Significance of the Flavonoid Chemistry and the Morphology of Lemnaceae in Axenic Culture," Ph.. Dissertation, University of Texas, 1964) maintained stock cultures of Lemnaceae clones in a 33% Hutner's solution fortified with 1% sucrose and 1.. 25% "Bacto-Agar" (Difco Laboratories) per 100 ml of medium.. Recipe For 20% Hutner's Nutrient Medium:.. Mineral Nutrient.. Mg per Liter.. NH.. NO.. 40.. HPO.. 80.. Ca(NO.. MgSO.. 100.. FeSO.. MnSO.. ZnSO.. 13.. BO.. Na.. MoO.. CuSO.. 0.. 8.. CoSO.. 2.. EDTA.. For More Information See.. John Cross.. 11.. Control of Duckweed Blooms In Ponds and Reservoirs.. ne of the most common questions received at this site is how to control population explosions or blooms of duckweeds in which ponds, lakes and reservoirs become covered with a thick green layer of.. Lemnaceae blooms typically occur in waters rich in nutrients, especially phosphorus and/or nitrogen.. The nutrients originate from pollution from excessive use of fertilizers or possibly by an imbalance in the populations of fish or water fowl resulting in excessive nitrogenous waste products in the water.. The recirculation of nitrogen and phosphorus from the cycle of growth and decomposition of duckweeds may also contribute to the high levels of these elements.. Destroying the duckweed layer with herbicides does not solve the problem of excess nutrients in the water.. In addition, the chemical herbicides may be toxic to the animal life, either directly or through biological magnification.. Because of the exponential growth rate of Lemnaceae, herbicides must be used repeatedly (perhaps several times a year).. Ideally, it is best to eliminate the influx of concentrated nitrates and phosphates into the water and avoid the use of concentrated fertilizers.. he manual or mechanical removal of the duckweed cover can also remove a lot of the nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients.. The duckweed mats can be composted and used as "green manure.. " They can also be fed to livestock, rabbits, poultry and fish.. It has been estimated that 10 acres of duckweeds could theoretically supply 60 percent of the nutritional needs of 100 dairy cows, the manure of which could be recycled to provide fertilizer for the thriving duckweeds.. According to R.. Harvey and J.. Fox, 1973 ("Nutrient Removal Using Lemna minor,".. Water Poll.. Control Fed.. 45: 1928-1938), one hectare of water area is sufficient to raise 4000-7000 chickens and ducks during a vegetation period.. And according to E.. Rejmankova, 1981.. ("On The Production Ecology of Duckweeds,".. Intern.. Workshop on Aquatic Macrophytes.. , Illmitz, Austria), one hectare of Lemnaceae cover is sufficient to produce protein for 480 ducks during the warm season.. The utilization of duckweeds as food for animals is summarized by E.. Kandeler, pages 382-389 in.. ETH, Stiftung Rubel 95.. The Family of Lemnaceae: A Monographic Study Vol.. 2, 1987.. An extensive bibliography of Lemnaceae is also given on pages 414-580.. The following 3 classic papers discuss duckweed use in aquaculture:.. Culley, D.. , Jr.. et al.. 1981.. "Production, Chemical Quality and Use of Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) in Aquaculture, Waste Management, and Animal Feeds.. World Maricult.. Soc.. 12 (2): 27-49.. Hillman, W.. Culley, Jr.. 1978.. "The Uses of Duckweed.. American Scientist.. 66: 442-451.. Rusoff, L.. , E.. Blakeney and D.. 1980.. "Duckweeds (Lemnaceae): A Potential Source of Protein and Amino Acids.. Agricult.. Food Chem.. 28: 848-850.. topping the inflow of nutrients and the repetitive removal of the duckweed layer will greatly reduce the growth of duckweeds.. Since water fowl and most fish feed on the duckweeds, they can help control the exponential population growth of these plants.. In addition, Lemnaceae have a positive effect in eutrophic water because they remove ammonia which is toxic to fish in high concentrations.. n general, Lemnaceae are very sensitive to herbicides.. In fact, duckweeds are often used to test the toxicity of herbicides and to detect the presence of herbicides in water.. According to Professor Dr.. Landolt (pages 161-170 in.. 2, 1987), heterocyclic compounds (e.. g.. 6-methylpurin), urea derivatives, and quaternary ammonium compounds (e.. diquat and paraquat) are the most toxic substances for Lemnaceae.. Some algicides, including PH 40:62 are extremely toxic to some species of.. Some of these products are available from agricultural supply companies depending on federal, state or local regulations.. They should be used with extreme caution and under very careful supervision.. It would be advisable to consult with your city or county weed/mosquito abatement department before attempting any large herbicidal control project.. iological control using ducks, fish, turtles and crustaceans (water shrimp, crayfish, ostracods, freshwater prawns, daphnia, amphipods, etc.. ) may also help to control duckweed populations.. There are a number of species of freshwater fish that eat duckweeds to supplement their diets, including grass carp (.. Ctenopharyngodon idella.. ), channel catfish (.. Ictalurus punctatus.. ), common carp (.. Cyprinus carpio.. ), common mullet (.. Mugil cephalis.. ), goldfish (.. Carassius auratus.. ), and.. Tilapia.. Sarotherodon.. ), including.. mossambicus.. hornorum.. , and.. nilotica.. Duckweeds are also eaten by Pacu (.. Colossoma bidens.. ), a freshwater fish native to the Amazon River.. Some of these fish species may be available through aquafarm distributors or local county and state agencies.. One aquaculture company in southern California was raising tilapia for local seafood restaurants.. More Information About Duckweeds For Wastewater Treatment:.. LEMNA Corporation.. 1408 Northland Drive Suite 310.. Paul, Minnesota 55120, USA.. Phone: (612) 688-0836.. FAX: (612) 688-8813.. 12.. All the articles, photos and illustrations in Wayne's Word are copyright protected and may not be used in other on-line, CD or printed publications without our expressed written permission.. This includes the display of our images and illustrations on other web sites.. For anyone interested in this material, you may place hyperlinks (but no frames) to anchor tags on our pages from your web sites.. Send An E-Mail Message To Professor Armstrong:.. Due To The Overwhelming Number Of Messages Sent To WAYNE'S WORD.. (And Due To A Staff Of Only One Human), Replies May Not Be Forthcoming.. Return To The Lemnaceae Home Page.. Go To Keys To The Genera Of Lemnaceae.. Go To The List Of Species Of Lemnaceae.. Go To List Of.. GIF Images Of Lemnaceae.. Go Back To LIFE SCIENCE HOME PAGE..

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  • Title: Biology 100
    Descriptive info: Biology 101 On-line Course Materials.. Cells.. Mitosis.. Meiosis.. DNA.. PCR.. Hybrids.. Cycles.. Ecology.. To Speed Up Page Loading Time, Turn Off Image Display In Browser: Click On Image Icon To View Individual Image.. Biology 101 Lecture Topics.. Biology 101 On-Line Syllabus.. Biology 101 Exam Hint Pages.. Exercise 1 Cell Properties.. Exercise 1A Cell Illustrations.. Exercise 2 Cell Division.. Exercise 2A Mitosis & Meiosis.. Exercise 3 DNA & RNA.. PCR & Gel Electrophoresis.. Chemicals Of Living Systems.. Exercise 4 Corn & Parakeets.. Exercise 5 Polygenic Inheritance.. Hybridization & Polyploidy.. Exercise 6 Genetic Drift.. Exercise 7 & 8 Life Cycles.. Principles Of Population Growth.. Diagrams: Molecular Models.. Photosynthesis & Respiration.. Some Ecological Principles.. Ecological Adaptation  ...   Links On The World Wide Web.. Plant Genetics hyperlinks.. Insect-Flower Hyperlinks.. Plant Biochemistry Hyperlinks.. Life Sciences Dept.. Home Page.. Armstrong's Home Page.. Biography Of W.. Sign Up For Biology 101 On-line.. Palomar Teacher Rating On-line.. Biology 100 Lecture/Laboratory.. Biology 101 Grade Lookup.. Biology 100 General Biology.. Official Biology 100 Course Syllabus.. Biology 100 Syllabus Addendum.. Biology 100 Grade Lookup Table.. Biology 100 Life Cycle Quiz Hint Page.. Biology 100 Spring 2001 Lab Schedule.. Biology 100 Spring 2002 Lab Schedule.. Biology 100 Fall 2001 Lab Schedule.. Biology 100 Fall 2002 Lab Schedule.. Botany 110 and Botany 115 Schedules.. Return To WAYNE'S WORD Home Page.. Return To NOTEWORTHY PLANTS Menu.. See Another WWW Site By Mr..

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  • Title: Botany 115
    Descriptive info: Botany 110 & 115 On-line Course Materials.. Crossword Puzzles.. Regional Flora Checklists.. Chemistry Of Plants.. Brodiaea Index.. Botany 115.. Botany 115 Course Syllabus.. Botany 115 Reading Schedule.. Botany 115 Exam Hint Pages.. Botany 115 On-Line Exams.. Medical Alkaloids/Glycosides.. DNA Structure & Function.. Periodic Table Of Elements.. Vegetative Terminology (1).. Vegetative Terminology (2).. Vegetative Terminology (3).. Leaf Terminology (Part 1).. Leaf Terminology (Part 2).. Inflorescence Terminology (1).. Fruit Terminology (Part 1).. Fruit Terminology (Part 2).. Fruit Terminology (Part 3).. Fruit Terminology (Part 4).. Identification Of Fruit Types.. World's Largest Vegetable.. To Be Or Not To Be A Nut.. Biology Genetics Problems.. Gametes, Mitosis & Meiosis.. Algae-Fungi-Bacteria-Plant.. Links.. Fruit & Vegetable Hyperlinks.. Plant Genetics Hyperlinks.. Plant Ecology Hyperlinks.. Botanical Record-Breakers.. Links On World Wide Web.. Link To Excellent DNA Site.. Schedules & Course Syllabi.. Final Course Grade Lookup.. Botany 110.. Botany 110 Bulletin Board.. Drawings Of Plant Unknowns.. Jepson Upgrade Keys To Unknowns.. Botany 110 Course Syllabus.. Lab & Field Trip Schedule.. Flower Terminology (Part 1).. Flower Terminology (Part 2).. Flower Terminology (Part 3).. Inflorescence Terminology (2).. Use Of Dichotomous Keys.. Major Life Cycle Patterns.. Calif.. Top Ten Wildflowers.. The Large Sunflower Family.. Plants Containing Alkaloids.. Some Ecological Principles.. Principles of Population Growth.. The Curious Names Of Plants.. Botany 115 Hint Pages.. Exam #1 Hint Pages: Plant Kingdom.. Exam #2 Hint Pages: Biochemistry.. Exam #3 Hint Pages: Plant Genetics.. Exam #4 Hint Pages: Economic Plants.. Exam #5 Hint Pages: Wood & Fibers.. Botany 110 Botany of Spring Wildflowers.. Botany 110 Spring 2003 Lab Schedule.. Official Botany 110 Course Syllabus.. Botany 115 Plants and People.. Botany 115 Fall 2000 Lecture Schedule.. Official Botany 115 Course Syllabus.. Botany 115 On-line Course Syllabus.. Plant Lists By Tom Chester.. Regional Floras Of Southern California by Tom Chester.. Trail Guides Of Southern California by Tom Chester.. Plant List For Palm Canyon, Anza-Borrego  ...   County?.. Bulb Plants West Of Palomar College.. Photos of Plants In The San Marcos Mountains.. Plants of the San Elijo Lagoon & Vicinity.. Plants of the Anza-Borrego Desert & Vicinity.. Photos of Plants of the Anza-Borrego Desert.. Wildflowers of Joshua Tree National Park.. Plants of the Mountains of San Diego County.. Photos of Plants in Mountains of San Diego County #1.. Photos of Plants in Mountains of San Diego County #2.. Photos of Plants in Mountains of San Diego County #3.. Plants of Laguna.. Cuyamaca Mts by Hirshberg & Clemons.. Plants of the Santa Rosa Plateau.. Checklist Of The Lichens On Palomar Mountain.. Lichens of the Agua Tibia Wilderness Area.. Lichens of the Santa Rosa Plateau.. Economically Important Plant Families.. Vascular Plants of San Diego County.. Type Specimens of San Diego County.. The Cacti (Cactuses) of San Diego County.. Scrub Oaks & Oak Trees of San Diego County.. Go To The San Diego Plant Atlas Project.. Plant Lists On-Line Through Univ.. at Irvine.. Jepson Manual Data Base.. On-line Corrections to The Jepson Manual.. Index of all Species Listed In Jepson Manual.. Species In Calif.. Floristic Regions & Subregions.. Plants In Regional Floras Of Southern California.. Plant Images Using The CalPhoto Data Base.. Jepson Online Interchange For California Floristics.. Plant Family List To Tape Into Jepson Manual (1993).. Family List To Tape Into Jepson Manual 2nd Ed.. (2012).. Endangered Vernal Pools.. Fish & Wildlife Endangered Species.. San Diego County Vernal Pools.. CNPS List of Rare & Endangered Plants.. Convert Your Checklist Into A Booklet.. Download A Trial Version Of ClickBook.. Topo Maps: Find Your Latitude & Longitude.. Go To TerraServer at Microsoft.. Township-Range-Section Data Conversion.. Consortium of California Herbaria.. San Diego County Plant Atlas Map.. Find Plant Collections In San Diego County.. Kew & Missouri Botanical Garden Plant List.. A Working List Of All Known Plant Species..

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  • Title: Scenic Index
    Descriptive info: Fungi.. Fig Index.. Wildflowers1.. Wildflowers2.. Wildflowers3.. Wildflowers4.. Wildflowers5.. Wildflowers6.. Index Of Scenic Images On Wayne's Word.. Note: If You Get Lost Navigating Through Wayne's Word Pages You Can Easily.. Get Back To This Scenic Index Page By Clicking On Tabs:.. Or.. Scenic Landscapes & Cameras.. Scenic Landscape 1.. Scenic Landscape 2.. Scenic Landscape 3.. Scenic Landscape 4.. Scenic Landscape 5.. Galapagos Islands 1989.. Trains:.. Cajon Pass.. Tehachapi.. Old 3751 Steam Locomotive.. Nikon SLR Images 1-9.. Tip For Sony T9 & T10 Users.. Sony T9  ...   Images.. Clouds Over Anza-Borrego.. Travel Trips With Scenic Images.. Oregon, NW Calif.. & Mt.. Lassen.. Alaska Cruise & Train Trip.. Canada Train Trip:.. Death Valley National Park.. Grand Canyon National Park.. Verde River Valley, Arizona.. Montana, Wyoming & Idaho.. Eastern Sierra Nevada.. Sequoia-Kings Canyon 2004.. Sequoia-Kings Canyon 2012.. Monterey, Redwoods & N.. Wildflowers Of Central California.. Wildflowers.. Glendive.. Montana Road Trip.. Pinnacles National Monument.. Petrified Forest National Monument.. White Mtns, Arizona Road Trip.. Return To NOTEWORTHY PLANTS Page.. Go To Biology GEE WHIZ TRIVIA Page..

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  • Title: Wildflower Index
    Descriptive info: Top Flowers.. Checklists.. Terminology.. Bot Unknowns.. Vernal Pools.. Sunflowers.. Wildflowers 1.. Fire Areas.. Links To Fungi Pages.. Links To Life Cycle Pages.. Links To Lichen Pages.. Links To Wildflower Pages.. Links To Fig Symbiosis Pages.. Index Of Wildflower Pages On Wayne's Word.. Wayne's Favorites.. Wayne's Favorite California Desert Wildflower.. Wayne's Favorite California Coastal Wildflower.. Wayne's Favorite Microscopic Flowering Plant.. Wayne's Most Bizarre Wildflower In The U.. Top 10 Southern California Wildflowers.. Brodiaea Images: Central & Southern California.. Index Of Brodiaea Species In California.. Index Of Cryptantha Images On Wayne's Word.. Wildflowers Of Anza-Borrego Desert.. Alma Wash & Alma Canyon (March 2010).. Anza-Borrego Desert (February 2005).. Bisnaga Alta Wash Area (February 2012).. Borrego Clouds & Rainbow (14 April 2012).. Borrego Valley & Vicinity (March 2010).. Borrego Valley & Vicinity (2 April 2010).. Borrego Valley & Vicinity Locoweeds.. Butler Canyon, Anza-Borrego Desert.. Chollas In Anza-Borrego Desert (Part 4b).. Chollas In Anza-Borrego Desert (Part 4c).. Coyote Creek1: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Coyote Creek2: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Coyote Creek3: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Coyote Creek4: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Coyote Creek5: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Cryptantha Expedition: Moonlight Canyon.. Domelands & Wind Caves of Imperial County.. Fonts Point and Alcoholic Pass.. Hawk Canyon, Anza-Borrego Desert.. Henderson Canyon, Anza-Borrego Desert.. Highway S-2 (Wildflower Survey May 2010).. Mammillaria tetrancistra.. After Monsoonal Rain.. Mason Valley & Oriflamme Canyon (Jan.. 2012).. Mason Valley & Rainbow Canyon (Jan.. Nemacladis twisselmannii.. In San Diego County.. Palm Canyon: Anza-Borrego (December 2011).. Palo Verde Canyon, Anza Borrego Desert.. Pinyon Mountain: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Rattlesnake Canyon: Anza-Borrego Desert.. Smoke Tree Wash, Anza  ...   (May 2009).. Sage, California (February 2005).. San Marcos & Merriam Mts.. San Marcos Vernal Pools.. Vernal Pool Addendum 1.. Vernal Pool Addendum 2.. Thornmint: A Rare & Beautiful Wildflower.. Volcan Mountain Wildflowers.. Witch Creek Fire: San Diego County.. Witch Creek Fire Followers: Part 1.. Witch Creek Fire Followers: Part 2.. Witch Creek Fire Followers: Part 3.. Witch Creek Fire Followers: Part 4.. Witch Creek Fire Followers: Part 5.. Wildflowers Of California.. Central California Wildflowers May 2010.. Figueroa Mt Road & Gaviota Pass 1.. Figueroa Mt Road & Gaviota Pass 2.. Wildflowers Of California (Part 1).. Wildflowers Of California (Part 2).. Wildflowers Of California (Part 3).. Wildflowers Of California (Part 4).. Wildflowers Of California (Part 5).. Wildflowers Of California (Part 6).. Wildflowers Of California (Part 7).. Special Wildflowers Pages.. Scarlet Locoweed (Astragalus coccineus).. Chocolate Lily (Fritillaria biflora).. Wolffia In Flower (Wolffia borealis).. Devil's Claws (Proboscidea spp.. Wildflowers Of The Santa Rosa Plateau.. Santa Rosa Plateau 1 (Rock Types).. Santa Rosa Plateau 2 (Lichens).. Santa Rosa Plateau Wildflowers 6 May 08.. Wildflowers Of Joshua Tree National Monument.. Joshua Tree Wildflowers #1 (Red Butte Wash).. Joshua Tree Wildflowers #2 (Red Butte Wash ).. Joshua Tree Wildflowers #3 (Red Butte Wash).. Joshua Tree Wildflowers #4 (Cottonwood Springs Road).. Joshua Tree Wildflowers #5 (Cottonwood Springs Road).. Marine & Carrion Flowers.. Marine Flowering Plants (The Seagrasses).. Wildflowers: Curious Names Of Wildflowers.. Parasitic & Mycotrophic Wildflowers.. Parasitic Flowering Plants: Root & Stem Parasites.. Pholisma Images: The Bizarre Sand Food & Sand Plant.. The Amazing Endoparasite: Pilostyles thurberi..

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  • Title: train Index
    Descriptive info: Index Of Train Pages On Wayne's Word.. Wayne's Word Train Images.. Index of Single Page Calendars With Train Images.. Trains 1: Cajon Pass (San Bernardido) & Campo (San Diego).. Trains 2: Nevada, Utah & Essex, Montana.. Trains 3: Freight Train: Kingman, Arizona.. Trains 4: Passenger Train: Verde Canyon, Arizona.. Trains 5: Passenger Train: Grand Canyon, Arizona.. Trains 6: Trains At Williams, Ariz.. & Needles, Calif.. Trains 7: Torrey Pines State Park (Los Peñasquitos Lagoon).. Trains 8: Old 3751 Steam Locomotive At Los Peñasquitos Lagoon.. Trains 9: Old 3751 Steam Locomotive At Los Batiquitos Lagoon..  ...   12: Alaska Trains At Denali National Park.. Trains 13: Alaska Train At The City Of Seward.. Trains 14: Alaska Trains Near City Of Skagway.. Trains 15: Freight Trains At Cajon Pass & Mormon Rocks.. Trains 16 Freight Trains Near Caliente (Tehachapi Area).. Trains 17: Speeding Freight Train Near Bradley, California.. Trains 18: Union Pacific Train At Cascade Locks, Oregon.. Trains 19: Freight TrainsTrains In Columbia Gorge, Oregon.. Trains 20: Long BNSF Coal Trains Near Glendive, Montana.. Trains 21: Long BNSF Freight Trains Near Essex, Montana.. Trains 22: Trains In Columbia River Gorge, ORE & WA..

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  • Title: Insect Index
    Descriptive info: Index Of Insects & Spiders On Wayne's Word.. Spiders1.. Spiders2.. Spider Allies.. Mites.. Butterflies.. Wasps.. Caddisflies.. True Bugs.. Homoptera.. Dragonflies.. Grasshoppers.. Neuroptera.. Flies.. Beetles1.. Beetles2.. Beetles3.. Termites.. Miscellaneous.. Arthropod Orders & Classes On Wayne's Word.. You May Also Look Up Specific Animals Using The Wayne's Word.. Tab At Upper Right.. Class Insecta: Insects.. Anoplura.. : Sucking Lice.. Blattodea.. : Cockroaches.. Collembola.. : Snowfleas & Springtails (Now in.. separate class along with Protura & Diplura.. Coleoptera:.. Beetles 1.. Beetles 2.. Beetles 3.. Dermaptera.. : Earwigs.. Diptera.. : True Flies.. Embioptera.. : Webspinners.. Ephemeroptera.. : Mayflies.. Heteroptera.. : True Bugs.. : Leafhoppers, Cicadas & Lanternflies.. Hymenoptera.. Bees.. Ants.. Isoptera.. : Termites.. Lepidoptera.. : Butterflies & Moths.. Mallophaga.. : Biting Lice.. Mantodea.. :  ...   Trichoptera.. : Caddisflies.. Class Arachnida: Spiders & Mites.. Amblypygi.. : Tailless Whipscorpion (In Harry Potter).. Acarina.. Acari.. ): Mites & Ticks.. Face Mites.. Araneae:.. Spiders 1.. Spiders 2.. Orb Weavers.. Opilones.. : Harvestmen (Daddy Long-Legs).. Pseudoscorpionida.. : Pseudoscorpions.. Scorpionida.. : Scorpions.. Solpugida.. : Solpugids.. Thelyphonida.. : Whiptail Scorpion (Vinegarroon).. Class Chilopoda & Diplopoda.. Class Chilopoda.. : Centipedes.. Class Diplopoda.. : Millipedes.. Class Crustacea.. Amphipoda.. : Sand & House Hoppers.. Anostraca.. : Brine Shrimp.. Fairy Shrimp.. Isopoda.. : Sowbugs & Pillbugs.. Ostracoda.. : Ostracods On Santa Rosa Plateau.. More Animal Links On Wayne's Word.. Tardigrades.. : Seldom-Seen Phylum Living On Lichens.. Classification Of Life 1.. : Five Kingdoms & 3 Domains.. Classification Of Life 2.. : 21 Major Phyla Of Animals..

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  • Archived pages: 1080