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    Archived pages: 131 . Archive date: 2012-11.

  • Title: The Parasitic Plant Connection
    Descriptive info: .. Presented by.. Dan Nickrent.. Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.. What's New on the Parasitic Plant Connection?.. Photographs Needed!.. See a list of genera for which no photograph currently exists.. Search the.. Parasitic Plant Connection.. General Information.. How to Navigate the PPC.. Why the PPC?.. Using Information from the PPC.. About the Author of These Pages.. Links to Other Parasitic Plant Sites.. Names Addresses of Specialists.. Terminology of Parasitic Plants.. Parasitic Plants as Food !.. Parasitic Plants on Stamps !.. News about the Parasitic Plant Connection.. Old Newsworthy Items.. Upcoming Meetings on Parasitic Plants.. Past Meetings on Parasitic Plants.. References - General.. References - Molecular.. Generic Lists - all families.. Translations of Parasitic Plant Literature.. Click.. HERE.. to get a pdf file tabulating the number of genera and species of parasitic plants.. Order and Family Pages.. The following pages provide distribution maps, descriptions, lists of genera, photographs, and bibliographic references to family members.. A Unique Trophic Mode.. Parasitaxus.. - a Non-photosynthetic Gymnosperm.. Mycoheterotrophs - Angiosperms Feeding via Fungi.. The Strange and Wonderful Mycoheterotrophs.. Parasites - Angiosperms Feeding via Haustoria.. Laurales.. Lauraceae.. (.. Cassytha.. ).. The Laurel Family (Love Vine).. Piperales.. Hydnoraceae.. The.. Hydnora Family.. Santalales.. Erythropalaceae.. The Erythropalum Family..  ...   The Balanophora Family.. Saxifragales.. Cynomoriaceae (.. Cynomorium.. ).. The.. Zygophyllales.. Krameriaceae (.. Krameria.. Malpighiales.. Rafflesiaceae.. Rafflesia.. Malvales.. Cytinaceae.. Cytinus.. Cucurbitales.. Apodanthaceae.. Apodanthes.. Ericales.. Mitrastemonaceae (.. Mitrastema.. Boraginales.. Lennoaceae.. (or Boraginaceae) The.. Lennoa.. Solanales.. Convolvulaceae (.. Cuscuta.. The Morning Glory Family (Dodder).. Lamiales.. Orobanchaceae.. The Broomrape Family.. Phylogenetic Relationships.. All Parasitic Flowering Plants.. Molecular Data (DNA and RNA).. DNA Sequences - Links to Families of Parasitic Plants in NCBI (Taxonomy Browser).. The family names for Santalales have been updated and now correspond to those on Parasitic Plant Connection.. : Lauraceae (.. :.. (all taxa.. ):.. : Cynomoriaceae (.. : Krameriaceae (.. Cytinaceae.. Mitrastemonaceae.. : Lennoaceae (Lamiids incertae cedis.. Boraginaceae.. : Convolvulaceae (.. Sequence Alignments.. Ribosomal RNA Structures.. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Dan Nickrent.. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Department of Plant Biology.. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, College of Science.. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.. Questions and comments related to parasitic plants:.. Questions related to the web server: webmaster at science.. siu.. edu.. Southern Illinois University is an equal opportunity employer and will not discriminate against any person.. on the basis of race, religion, national origin or sex in violation of Title VII.. Copyright 1997 Daniel L.. Nickrent.. Privacy Policy.. Last Updated..

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  • Title: What's New?
    Descriptive info: What's New on the Parasitic Plant Connection?.. To help visitors to this web site keep tabs on the ongoing changes, I've added this page which will give a "running tab" of the significant updates.. February, 2010.. It has been some time since I tabulated the list of contributors to the PPC! As you can see from the list below, 36 people have contributed over 80 photos to this web site.. Please forgive me if I have overlooked you for this list (let me know).. In addition, I have continued to link to photos present on other web sites.. Two sites in particular have recently come on line that feature large numbers of high-quality digital photos of plants, including parasitic plants.. These are.. FloraoftheWorld.. org.. and.. PlantPhotoBank.. cn.. Although the latter is in Chinese (which may inhibit some of you), the second tab at the top provides a list of families in English.. You can get a rough translation of the index page using Google.. here.. I want to particularly acknowledge the following who provided photos of genera previously not represented on this site: Alexander Georgiev (.. Chlamydophytum.. ), Sachin Punekar (.. Helicanthes.. ), Peter Phillipson (.. Leucosalpa.. ), D.. C.. H.. Plowes (.. Vanwykia.. ), Shengxiang Yu (.. Brandesia.. ), John Dransfield (.. Lampas.. ), and Phan Ke Loc (.. Harmandia.. As shown on.. this page.. , there are now only 34 (of the 270) genera of parasitic flowering plants not featured on PPC.. Of course, photographs are not the only thing offered on the PPC.. Although I have not always kept up by adding the recent literature to the list at the end of each family page, for some groups I have included citations to recent phylogenetic studies.. This is especially true for the groups that I work on, such as Santalales.. Two para- or polyphyletic families in this order,.. have now been reclassified (Nickrent et al.. 2010 in press), these "families" split into monophyletic groups and named as families.. For now, the genera are left in their old "sensu lato" families, but after the Taxon paper is published, I intend to provide new, separate pages for each family.. Stay tuned!.. Amico, Guillermo:.. Arjona longifolia.. Annette Patzelt:.. Leptorhabdos parviflora.. Australian National Botanic Garden:.. Dactyliophora novae-guneae, Trithecanthera sparsa.. Bartolome, Nestor A.. :.. Balanophora papuana.. Bertolo, Miguel Porto:.. Balanophora fungosa.. Boufford, David:.. Buckleya angulosa.. Co, Leonard:.. Balanophora fungosa, B.. papuana, Lindenbergia philippensis.. Costea, Mihai:.. Pilostyles mexicana, Psittacanthus calyculatus, P.. palmeri.. Davidson, Christopher:.. Agelanthus nyasicus, Alectra pumila, Anacolosa pervilleana, Aptandra zenkeri, Bakerella clavata, Bdallophyton americanum, Berlinianche aethiopica, Buchnera spp.. , Cytinus hypocistis, Graderia scabra, Hachettea austrocaledonica, Korthalsella disticha, Krameria lappacea, Orobanche gamosepala, Pedicularis chroorhincha, P.. sibthorpii, Pentarhopalopilia perrieri, Striga elegans.. Dransfield, John:.. Lampas elmeri, Lepidaria malaiana.. Dunn, M.. Tripodanthus flagellaris.. Faucher, Marc:.. Thonningia sanguinea.. Fernando, Suranjan:.. Ferrera, Ulysses:.. Amyema beccarii, A.. fasciculata, Balanophora fungosa, Cyne sp.. , Decaisnina cumingii, Dendrophthoe clementis, D.. mearnsii, Euphrasia philippinensis, Helixanthera parasitica, Taxillus chinensis.. Georgiev, Alexander:.. Chlamydophytum aphyllum, Thonningia sanguinea.. Glatzel, Gerhard:.. Amyema bifurcata, Dendropthoe ligulata, D.. longiflora, Taxillus kaempferi.. Labutap, Noel:.. Decaisnina.. cf.. miniata.. Loc, Phan Ke:.. Harmandia mekongensis.. Ma, Shek-Shing:.. Dendrotrophe frutescens, Helixanthera parasitica, Korthalsella japonica, Macrosolen cochinchinesis, Phacellaria rigidula, Scurrula parasitica, Taxillus chinensis, Viscum ovalifolium.. Mandalam, Ravi:.. Macrosolen formosus.. Morawetz, Jeffrey:.. Lindenbergia indica.. Nee, Michael:.. Ombrophytum subterraneum.. Olanya, Concy:.. Phillipson, Peter:.. Leucosalpa grandiflora, Radamaea.. sp.. Plowes, D.. Vanwykia remota.. Pooma, R.. Tolypanthus pustulatus.. Porte, Sybout:.. Decaisnina zollingeri, Dendrophthoe carinata.. Punekar, Sachin:.. Helixanthera elastica.. Ramírez-Amezcua, Yocopitzia:.. Melasma physalodes.. Randle, Chris: Escobea grandiflora,.. Escobea laevis, Lamourouxia multifida, Phoradendron foresteriae.. Romero, Lorena:.. Phthirusa stellis.. Samain, Marie-Stéphanie:.. Helosis cayennensis.. Tesitel, Jakub: Hedbergia abyssinica,.. Rhyncocorys elephas, R.. odontophylla, R.. orientalis.. van Vugt, Rogier:.. Korthalsella opuntia.. Vidal-Russell, Romina:.. Myoschilos oblongata.. Yu, Shengxiang:.. Brandesia hancei.. December, 2008.. The widespread use of digital cameras has resulted in a virtual explosion of photographs on the internet! Moreover, these armies of professional and amateur photographers are sharing their photos with the world by posting on web sites such as Flickr and Picasa web.. I have recently conducted a series of searches, mainly on the Flickr web site, for photographs of parasitic plants.. This resulted in literally thousands of hits, many of which are of species not previously shown on the Parasitic Plant Connection.. Several hundred links to individual photos or photo sets were then added.. This method of sharing photos has the benefit of not requiring separate server space for image storage but has a possible down side if these links are not stable over time.. Enjoy the richness and diversity that adding these links provides!.. September, 2008.. It may seem from the long period of time between this and the last report that nothing was being done to the Parasitic Plant Connection.. Such is not the case! There have been a number of updates and, as you would expect, additions of numerous photographs.. A number of family alliances have changed owing to information obtained from molecular data.. This is especially true for members of Santalales.. Within this order, two new genera have been named (.. Staufferia.. Pilgerina.. , both in "Santalaceae" from Madagascar) and among holoparasitic Orobanchaceae, the genus.. Eremitilla.. was named and described.. Previous molecular work placed Rafflesiaceae s.. str.. in Malphighiales, but additional work showed it is related to Euphorbiaceae.. The original study that separated Cynomoriaceae from Balanophoraceae also showed the latter to be affiliated with Santalales.. This result has been confirmed by two additional and independent studies.. From these, it should be apparent that there is much work taking place with parasitic plants and that interest in them is increasing.. I want to warmly thank all the people who contributed photographs to this web site.. Without these, the site would not be as comprehensive and useful to those who use it.. Barcelona, J.. Rafflesia banahawensis, R.. leonardi, R.. manillana, R.. schadenbergiana.. Barthlott, W.. Cytinus ruber.. Bartolome, N.. A.. Amyema.. Boufford, D.. Co, L.. L.. Aeginetia indica, Alectra arvensis, Amyema sp.. , Dendromyza sp.. , Dendrophthoe sp.. , Erythropalum scandens, Exocarpos latifolius, Helixanthera spp,, Lepidaria quadriflora, Lindenbergia philippensis, Olax imbricata, Strombosia philippinensis, Rafflesia speciosa, R.. leonardi.. Faucher, M.. and P.. Amyema wichmannii.. ssp.. pura.. Ferreras, U.. F.. Centranthera cochinchinensis.. ,.. Cyne.. ,.. Dendrophthoe.. Glatzel, G.. : Loranthaceae (many!),.. Lathraea squamaria, Rhianthus freynii.. Gregg, K.. B.. Lennoa madreporoides.. Greuter, C.. Arceuthobium pini.. Hammer, R.. Phoradendron rub.. rum.. Hu, J.. -M.. Loranthus delavayi.. Hunt, E.. Maxwell:.. Macrosolen.. (Sarawak).. Jørgensen, P.. et al.. Cervantesia tomentosa.. Kelly, D.. : Alepis flavida,.. Ileostylus micranthus, Peraxilla tetrapetala.. Lepschi, B.. Leptomeria pauciflora.. Mat-Salleh, K.. Rafflesia azlanii.. McMaster, C.. Melasma scabrum.. Milne, R.. Sciaphila.. (Triuridaceae).. Musselman, L.. J.. Krameria lanceolata.. Philippine Spotted Deer Conservation Foundation:.. Rafflesia lobata.. Rasoulpour, R.. Cynomorium coccineum, Cistanche phelypaea.. Ratovoson, F.. Staufferia capuron.. ii.. Rogers, Z.. Pilgerina madagascariensis.. Ruellan, G.. Jodina rhombifolia.. Subramanian, K.. and G.. Kuriakose:.. Helixanthera wallichiana.. Susatya, A.. Rafflesia bengkuluensis.. Ugarte-Lewis, M.. Aetanthus nodosus.. van Vugt, R.. Cuscuta europaea, C.. lupuliform.. is.. Vestergaard, M.. Cistanche phely.. paea.. Watson, D.. Muellerina eucalyptoides.. Yatskievych, G.. Eremitilla mexicana, Boschniakia himalaica.. October, 2006.. New Photographs.. Has it really been over one year since I last updated this page! The PPC has continued to grow, mainly owing to the addition of photographs from numerous contributors (see below).. I especially want to acknowledge Robin Foster (.. Neotropical Live Plant Photos.. ), Rusty Russell (.. Plant Image Collection.. , Smithsonian) who made available photos of parasitic plants from R.. Howard and G.. Cooper, as well as Jeffry Morowetz who contributed a number of photos of Orobanchaceae.. The ".. Praising Flowers.. " website in Japan as well as the ".. Wildflower Romantic.. " website in China were excellent sources of Asian parasitic plant photos.. My apologies for not being able to acknowledge the actual photographers from these sites (either they were not given or I was not able to find and translate the information).. Instead of listing the new photographs by family, I have changed the format to an alphabetical listing by person or website (when the photographer is not indicated).. Amico, G.. Ligaria cuneifolia.. Archibald, J.. Alectra capensis, Harveya speciosa.. Aubert, S.. Quinchamalium chilense, Tristerix aphyllus.. Bannister, P.. Korthalsella lindsayi, Korthalsella salicornioides.. Rafflesia manillana.. Barthelat, F.. Balanophora abbreviata, Christisonia.. species.. Betz, H.. Cladocolea.. E.. Pterygiella nigrescens.. Brisse, H.. Cytinus sanguineus.. Calvert, G.. Decaisnina signata.. Colwell, A.. Orobanche fasciculata.. Cooper, G.. Krameria erecta, Krameria grayi.. Douzet, R.. Arjona patagonica.. Ekpe, P.. Englerina lecardii, Opilia amentacea Phragmanthera species, Striga brachycalyx, Tapinanthus bangwensis, Ximenia americana.. Fischer, E.. (painting):.. Sieversandreas madagascarianus.. Fleischmann, A.. S.. Thesium bavarum, Thesium rostratum.. Foster, R.. Aetanthus nodosus, Cassytha filiformis, Cladocolea archeri, Cuscuta obtusiflora, Dendrophthora clavata, Dendrophthora elliptica, Dendrophthora lueri, Dendrophthora pauciflora, Dendrophthora species, Gaiadendron punctatum, Lophophytum mirabile, Ombrophytum violaceum, Oryctanthus spicatus, Phoradendron chrysocladon, Phoradendron quadrangulare, Phthirusa species, Psittacanthus cucularis.. Macrosolen cochinchinensis, Macrosolen parasiticu.. s.. Gonzáles Lozada, W.. Ligaria cuneifolia, Tristerix corymbosus, Tristerix verticillatus.. Grau, A.. :.. Phoradendron rubrum, Schoepfia schreberi.. Hawthorne, W.. D.. Strombosia pustulata.. Howard, R.. Agelanthus zizyphifolius, Amylotheca insularum, Arceuthobium  ...   bulbosa, O.. fasciculata.. Mauricio Bonaficio:.. Castilleja irasuensis.. Christisonia wightii.. Eberhard Fischer.. Radamaea.. Buchnera weberbaueri.. Melampyrum arvense, M.. cristatum, Odontites luteus, Odontites vulgaris, Orobanche amethystea, O.. arenaria, O.. canescens, O.. elatior, O.. gracilis, O.. mutelii, O.. oxyloba, O.. reticulata, O.. versicolor, Pedicularis rostratocapitata, P.. palustris, P.. tuberosa, P.. kerneri, Euphrasia salisburgiensis, E.. officinalis, E.. minima, E.. stricta, Rhinanthus glacialis, R.. alectorolophus.. A SPECIAL THANKS to Andreas for providing such a great diversity of absolutely beautiful photographs of hemiparasitic and holoparasitic Orobanchaceae!.. Sebastian Gardt:.. Cistanche violacea.. Christoph Heibl:.. Lathraea clandestina, L.. squameria, Orobanche cernua, O.. crenata, O.. minor, O.. ramosa, Parentucellia viscosa, Aeginetia indica.. Mauro Peixoto:.. Esterhazya.. Hans Bänziger:.. Sapria poilanei, S.. himalayana, S.. ram, Rhizanthes infanticida, R.. deceptor.. Rafflesia gadutensis.. Kocyan:.. Rhizanthes lowii.. Antidaphne punctulata, Lepidoceras chilense.. Thesium pyrenaicum.. Antidaphne viscoidea, Eubrachion ambiguum.. Tony Foster:.. Mida salicifolia.. Carol Gracie:.. Comandra umbellata.. Mary Hancock:.. Spirogardnera rubescens.. Kihara Hiroshi:.. Buckleya lanceolata.. Exocarpos syrticola, E.. strictus, E.. humifusus, E.. cupressiformis.. Quinchamalium.. Myoschilos oblongata, Geocaulon lividum, Amphorogyne sp.. , Exocarpos casuarinoides.. Jérôme Munzinger:.. Daenikera corallina.. José Naranjo Suárez:.. Kunkeliella subsucculenta.. Susan J.. Patrick:.. Isabel Santana:.. Kunkeliella canariensis.. Osyris alba.. Peter Schönfelder:.. Kunkeliella retamoides.. D.. Swaine:.. Okoubaka aubrevillei.. Thomas Zumbrunn:.. Dendrophthora costaricensis.. Phoradendron chrysocladon, Dendrophthora squamigera.. Dendrophthora roraimae.. Viscum orientale.. [as V.. hyneanum],.. Viscum monoicum.. Viscum minimum.. Arceuthobium tibetense.. Carlos Aedo Perez:.. Arceuthobium azoricum.. Phoradendron berteroanum.. Viscum album.. Nagata Yoshio:.. Korthalsella japonica.. Other Items:.. Pierre Guertin has continued to supply the PPC web site with photographs of stamps that display a parasitic plant.. Thanks Pierre!.. April, 2003.. The number of photographs added since last October is staggering! My apologies if I have forgotten to credit everyone.. Given the number of new images, I will list them alphabetically by family:.. Roland Eberwein: illustrations of.. Corynaea, Ditepalanthus, Helosis, Rhopalocnemis, Scybalium.. Balanophora fungosa indica.. Elizabeth Kristy:.. Balanophora harlandii.. Dong Lin:.. Mystropetalum.. Eizi Suzuki:.. tobiracola].. Anton Weber:.. Exorhopala.. Kyle Williams:.. Corynaea.. Balanophora yuwanensis, B.. japonica.. Cynthia Heintze:.. Cuscuta japonica.. Amyema, Moquiniella, Oncocalyx, Plicosepalus, Tapinanthus.. Ligaria, Notanthera, Tristerix.. Thomas Croat:.. Brachynema.. [non-Olacaceae!].. Web Atlas, Trees of the Panama Canal:.. Minquartia.. Heisteria.. Paul Hiepko: photos and illustrations of.. Agonandra, Champereia, Gjellerupia, Lepionurus, Opilia, Pentarhopalopilia, Rhopalopilia, Urobotrya.. Mark Egger:.. Bartsia, Boschniakia, Orthocarpus.. Chris Parker:.. Parentucelia.. Rhizanthes deceptor, R.. infanticida, R.. lowii, Sapria himalayana f.. albovinosa, S.. poilanei, S.. ram.. Arthur Bazell:.. Norlan Tercero Bucardo:.. Quinchamalium chilense.. Javier Puntieri:.. Arjona tuberosa.. Nanodea muscosa.. October, 2002.. Thanks to the following people who have contributed excellent photographs for the PPC:.. Adam T.. Halamski (several pictures of European.. Orobanche.. Guillermo Amico (.. Desmaria, Tristerix.. , and.. I call your attention to a number of highly interesting photographs taken by Guillermo.. For example, he contributed photos of.. flowering during the winter and.. Dromiciops australis.. - the marsupial fruit disperser of this mistletoe (see Nature, 408: 929-930; Dec.. 21/28, 2000).. Romina Vidal Russell (.. Bruce Gray (.. Cecarria obtusifolia.. , Loranthaceae).. Dave Albrecht.. , Santalaceae).. Several photographs I took while in Queensland Australia (June) and while doing research with the Forest Research Institute in Papua New Guinea (July) have now been posted.. Most of these are of Loranthaceae in the genera.. Amylotheca, Decaisnina, Diplatia, Distrianthes.. (herbarium sample),.. Lysiana, Macrosolen, Papuanthes.. (herbarium specimen), and.. Sogerianthe.. I also photographed.. (Balanophoraceae, Queensland) and.. Dendromyza.. (Santalaceae, PNG).. June, 2002.. NEW SPECIES OF RAFFLESIA!.. No, this is not a practical joke, it's true.. A new species of the "Queen of the Parasites" has been discovered in the Philippines.. The event has already attracted scores of tourists and has been covered by newspapers and television.. This just goes to show how poorly known and how valuable tropical rainforest habitats are.. Check out the photographs.. I have posted a number of new links to photographs and line drawings of hemiparasitic and holoparasitic Orobanchaceae.. Many of these are links to the TROPICOS image library at Missouri Botanical Garden.. Others were discovered by searching the web.. There's still ca.. 30 genera of hemiparasites with no photographs.. Let me know if you can "fill in a gap"!.. May, 2002.. Paul Hiepko (.. Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dahlem) shared some of his excellent photographs of Opiliaceae, thereby more than tripling the number posted for this family! Thanks so much for your generosity Paul.. Gerald Schneeweisse (Dept.. of Systematics and Evolution of Higher Plants, Inst.. of Botany and Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna) donated pictures of two species of.. from Greece.. February, 2002.. Michael Hopkins kindly provided digital images of parasitic plants (e.. g.. Loranthaceae) found in the Reserva Forestal Aldolfo Ducke which is near the city of Manaus, Brazil.. Some of these photos were published in the book "Flora da Reserva Ducke" by Ribeiro, Hopkins, Vicentini et al.. (1999, INPA-DFID).. In case you haven't seen it, this is one of the most incredible documentations of a tropical flora that has ever been done.. The book contains literally thousands of high-quality color images of neotropical plants.. You can learn more about the Ducke Reserve by visiting the following website:.. http://curupira.. inpa.. gov.. br/projetos/ducke.. [note the name.. Curupira.. is a rare genus in Olacaceae!].. December, 2001.. Several people have contributed marvelous photographs! These include:.. Wm.. Vance Baird.. Phoradendron, Pholisma, Schoepfia, Agalinis, Conopholis, Epifagus.. Pedicularis.. A special thanks to Vance who kindly gave me his entire collection of parasitic plant color slides as well as several boxes of reprints!.. Alison Colwell.. George Yatskievych.. Pholisma.. Gerhard Glatzel.. (Loranthaceae and Viscaceae).. Gerhard sent an entire CD full of beautiful photographs.. Unfortunately I cannot post all of them but hopefully have picked some appropriate representatives.. Valéry Malécot.. Douradoa, Malania.. Mistletoe Symposium.. An announcement is now posted for the upcoming symposium on mistletoes (part of the International Canopy Conference) to be held in Cairns, Australia, June 23-28, 2002.. for info.. July, 2001.. Albert Blarer (University of Zürich) visited Zimbabwe and was able to photograph and collect.. Berlinianche aethiopica.. (Apodanthaceae or Rafflesiaceae s.. lat).. He has kindly allowed some of these photographs to be posted on the PPC.. Visit his site.. to see more.. September, 2000.. John Reynolds (Portland Oregon) kindly donated several excellent images of.. Chilean Santalales, such as.. Desmaria mutabilis.. (Loranthaceae),.. (Santalaceae), and.. (Misodendraceae).. Have a look!.. DWARF MISTLETOES: BIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND SYSTEMATICS is now available in its entirety on the web! Thanks to Dan Huebner and Brian Geils.. to go there.. July, 2000.. Parasitic Plants as Food.. Indeed, humans have "turned the tables" on some parasitic plants by using them as food items.. This.. page.. lists (in table format) some examples.. June, 2000.. Several new photographs have been added to the PPC:.. Photographs of herbarium specimens of.. taken by DLN when visiting the Missouri Botanical Garden herbarium (MO) during the fall of 1999.. These are of genera for which I do not have an actual color slide of the living plant.. If you have access to a slide that would replace the herbarium specimen, please contact me (D.. Nickrent).. I also made links to several parasite pictures present in the Tropicos database from MO such as.. Gaiadendron.. Bdallophyton.. (Rafflesiaceae), etc.. Lytton Musselman kindly donated many slides, some of which have been scanned and posted (e.. , Santalaceae, from South America).. George Williams volunteered photographs of.. Hydnora esculenta.. from his recent trip to Madagascar.. Visit his.. web page.. to see photographs of lemurs eating the fruits!.. Updates to Address List.. Several new people have been listed on the ".. Names and Addresses of Parasitic Plant Specialists.. " page.. Please inform me if your address/email has changed and I will update the listing.. Controlling Mistletoe.. I get a fair number of inquiries (via email) about how to control mistletoe.. To save myself replying to every separate one, I have posted a new page called ".. Controlling Mistletoe (.. Phoradendron.. )".. August September, 1999.. A number of new parasitic plant photographs have been added (or links made) to the listing of genera on each family index page.. These came mainly from:.. The University of Hawaii Vascular Plant Families.. (by Gerald Carr).. Australian National Botanic Garden.. Photo Collection.. Scanned images from the Kew Herbarium archives.. Family Index Page Appearance.. The listings of genera that appear on each family index page now have each genus set out to the left in a bold, red heading to help with organization and navigation.. Abstracts from the IBC.. All the abstracts from the two parasitic plant symposia at the recent IBC are included as well as any other papers or posters that dealt with parasitic plants.. 7th.. International Parasitic Weed Symposium.. announcement.. for this symposium was added to the main index page.. New Names.. A number of new names have been added to the.. Parasitic Plant Specialist.. List.. Control.. My most frequent inquiry from the general public relates to.. (dodder).. For this reason, I have added a.. discussing chemical control which also provides some WWWeb links.. SIUC / College of Science / Parasitic Plant Connection.. URL: http://www.. parasiticplants.. edu/WhatsNew.. html.. Last updated: 12-Feb-10 / dln..

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  • Title: Photographs Needed!
    Descriptive info: Images on the.. web site generally fall into one of four categories:.. 1.. Color photographs of living plants.. These are the most desirable because a good photograph is "worth a thousand words.. ".. 2.. Color photographs of herbarium specimens.. These can show a number of diagnostic taxonomic features and are thus "second best" to a photo of the living plant itself.. Lost are flower color, aspect of the leaves, etc.. 3.. Color paintings.. In some cases (e.. the extinct mistletoe.. Trilepidea.. , Loranthaceae), all that exists for this taxon is a painting, hence it is used.. Line art (black and white).. I have generally used line art of a taxon only if 1-3 above are not available.. In terms of taxonomic value, they can be extremely useful because diagnostic taxonomic features can be clearly shown.. See for example Opiliaceae.. Given the above, the.. needs your help.. For the parasitic plant genera listed below, there are currently no color photographs of living plants available through this web site.. In some cases, a photograph of an herbarium specimen is available and is so indicated.. I routinely conduct Google image searches and usually obtain no "hits" when the generic name is entered.. In some cases, this is because the plant is extremely rare (and possibly extinct) and may never have been photographed (e.. Thaumasianthes.. , Loranthaceae).. In other cases, photographs may exist but are housed in private collections that  ...   that you are willing to share, or know of someone to contact to obtain such a photo, please let me know (.. Engomegoma.. (herbarium specimen image).. Maburea.. Distrianthes.. Elytranthe.. Panamanthus.. Papuanthes.. (herbarium specimen image).. Gjellerupia.. (line drawing).. Rhopalopilia.. Ginalloa.. Orobanchaceae (* = holoparasites).. Asepalum.. Ghikaea.. Magdalenaea.. Micrargeriella.. Nothochilus.. Omphalotrix.. (line drawing).. Parastriga.. Petitmenginia.. *Platypholis.. Pseudomelasma.. Pseudostriga.. Rhaphispermum.. Sieversandreas.. (painting).. Silviella.. Tetraspidium.. Thunbergianthus.. Vellosiella.. We Now Have Photos!.. After tabulating the genera of parasitic plants without photographs, and posting this page, the following people have helped by providing photographs:.. Oncella gracilis.. (Loranthaceae).. From Roger Polhill via Don Kirkup.. Mannagettaea hummelii.. (Orobanchaceae).. From eFloras.. Gleadovia ruborum.. From PlantPhoto.. Dufrenoya platyphylla.. (Amphorogynaceae).. Devkota.. Physocalyx major.. Latvis.. Ophiocephalus angustifolius.. V.. Soza.. Helicanthes elastica.. Sachin A.. Punekar.. Leucosalpa grandiflora.. P.. Phillipson.. Plowes.. Dactyliophora.. novaeguineae.. Bernie Hyland.. Brandisia.. hancei.. Shengxiang Yu.. Lampas elmeri.. John Dransfield.. (Olacaceae).. Phan Ke Loc.. Anacolosa pervilleana.. Richard Randrianaivo.. Cameron McMaster.. Chlamydophytum aphyllum.. (Balanophoraceae).. Alexander Georgiev.. Buttonia hildebrandtii.. Richard A.. Howard.. Sonny Larsson.. Benthamina alyxifolia.. Gerhard Glatzel (with help from Bryan Barlow!).. Ditepalanthus malagasicus.. It was there all along - as.. Rhopalocnemis malagasica.. (a synonym).. Thanks Roland Eberwein for pointing this out!.. ruficeps.. Anton Weber.. Kunkeliella canariensis.. (Santalaceae).. Isabel Santana López.. Lathrophytum peckoltii.. Leandro Cardoso.. Mida salicifolia.. Tony Foster.. Okoubaka.. aubrevillei.. Swaine.. Pedistylus galpinii.. Marco Bleeker.. Tony Miller (Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh).. SIUC / College of Science / Parasitic Plant Connection / PhotosNeeded.. edu/PhotosNeeded.. Last updated: 07-Feb-12 / dln..

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  • Title: Parasitic Plant Connection Search Page
    Descriptive info: Search the.. using.. G.. o.. g.. l.. e.. Loading.. SIUC / Parasitic Plant Connection / Search Page.. edu/PPCSearchPage.. Page Last Updated..

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  • Title: PPC.navigation.diagram
    Descriptive info: Navigating The Parasitic Plant Connection.. When you first visit a web site, it is often frustrating and time-consuming to learn enough about the organization of the pages to find the information you need.. I have made every attempt to keep the format of the PPC as intuitive as possible, but a little extra help is always welcome! The diagram below shows the basic organization of the PPC web site.. The yellow bubbles represent pages  ...   The blue bubbles are pages that are accessible only by visiting the family-specific pages (see.. on main index page).. As of November 2010, The Parasitic Plant Connection contains over 4000 files, 3564 of these image files of parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plants.. And of course, the family pages link to many photographs being maintained on other servers.. At present there are over 760 links to at least one remote image.. edu/navigate.. Last updated: 09-Nov-10 / dln..

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  • Title: The Parasitic Plant Connection - Justification for PPC
    Descriptive info: Why The Parasitic Plant Connection?.. The motivation to assemble this series of pages is both self-serving and altruistic.. For myself, I would like to use these pages as a repository of information on parasitic plants as an aid to my research program.. There are over 4300 species of parasitic plants, thus a real effort is required to keep the information organized (something systematists are compelled to do!).. I began organizing information about parasitic plants many years ago using a Macintosh program called HyperCard.. From this came a series of "stacks" (files) containing B W graphical images, species lists, distribution maps, etc.. for a selected group of parasitic plants.. This series of  ...   first version of The Parasitic Plant Connection web site.. During the course of traveling to the far corners of the earth to collect parasitic plants, I have assembled a rather sizable collection of photographs of these unusual plants.. The ability to post on the WWW color photographs of spectacular plants such as.. made this site both aesthetically appealing as well as scientifically useful.. With such images, and with those kindly made available by colleagues, I hope to share with others the joy of studying these fantastic plants.. Questions related to the web server:.. webmaster@science.. SIUC / College of Science / Parasitic Plant Connection / Why PPC.. edu/WhyPPC.. Last updated: 27-Sept-11 / dln..

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  • Title: The Parasitic Plant Connection - Use of PPC
    Descriptive info: About the Use of Information.. If I didn't want anyone to use this information, I wouldn't have made it available on the web! I fully encourage anyone to use the pictures, text, etc.. for nonprofit scientific and educational purposes.. Other uses of this information should be cleared with me first.. I have purposely not embossed my initials or a symbol on each photograph.. If you would like to use any of the photographic images that I have taken, please contact me first (e-mail is best).. I will, in all likelihood, grant you permission, but I simply want  ...   to use one of my photographs as part of a "for profit" venture, I charge a $100.. 00 fee per photograph.. These funds are deposited into an account at SIUC that is used for botanical research.. For photographs taken by people other than me, please contact them directly to obtain permission.. Many of these people are listed on the ".. Parasitic Plant Specialists.. I would appreciate comments and, most certainly,.. contributions to this web site!.. Long Live the Parasites!!.. SIUC / College of Science / The Parasitic Plant Connection / Using PPC.. edu/UsingPPC.. Last updated: 31-Oct-07 / dln..

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  • Title: Parasitic Plant Connection - D Nickrent
    Descriptive info: Hi There! I'm Dan Nickrent, avid botanist, evolutionary biologist, naturalist, photographer and student of parasitic flowering plants.. No, those are not parasitic plants I'm holding, they are mushrooms!.. My particular research specialty is molecular systematics which means I use DNA to determine how plants are related to each other and how their genetic  ...   lists, etc.. , you can visit my departmental webpage.. mailing address.. phone numbers.. Daniel L.. Professor.. Department of Plant Biology.. Southern Illinois University.. Carbondale, IL 62901-6509.. (618) 453-3223.. (618) 453-3823.. (618) 536-2331.. (618) 453-3441.. office.. laboratory.. Plant Biology office.. fax.. SIUC / College of Science / Parasitic Plant Connection / Dan Nickrent.. edu/DanNick..

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  • Title: Parasitic Plant Connection - Links to other sites
    Descriptive info: Links to Other Sites about Parasitic Plants.. Parasitic Plants in General.. International Parasitic Plant Society.. The IPPS is dedicated to advancing scientific research on parasitic plants.. This includes increasing our understanding of these amazing plants as well as helping to decrease the crop damage inflicted by weedy parasitic plants.. This web site was designed and is maintained by James Westwood.. Plant Site from Old Dominion University.. Lytton Musselman.. has made available thousands of photographs that he has assembled during a lifetime of travel and photography.. There are many categories to choose from, including.. Bible Plants.. Blackwater Ecological Reserve.. Flora of Jordan.. Great Dismal Swamp.. Hydnora.. ,.. Isoetes.. and more.. Haustorium Parasitic Plants Newsletter.. Past issues of this newsletter are available at this web site.. The website maintained by Old Dominion University.. The Plant Pathology Internet Guide Book.. Created by Thorsten Kraska, this site is a subject-oriented internet resource guide for Phytopathology, Applied Entomology, and all related fields.. It is divided into various thematic section such as Mycology, Biological Control, and Weeds Parasitic Plants.. This site is a must for all plant pathologists.. Introduction to parasitic flowering plants.. by Dan Nickrent amd Lytton Musselman (2004, updated 2011.. APS Education Center Introductory Topics: Introductions to the Major Pathogen Groups).. Parasitic Plant Database.. This database was established by Jan Schlauer and Willem Meijer with help from Rick Walker.. It is a nomenclatural synopsis of selected parasitic plants, specifically the holoparasitic groups: Rafflesiaceae, Balanophoraceae, Hydnoraceae, Orobanchaceae, Cuscutaceae.. It contains over 4000 entries and has search capabilities.. Parasite of the Day.. This blog deals with parasites of all kinds, but on occassion features parasitic plants, such as Rhinanthus minor (Dec.. 1, 2011) or Viscum album (Dec.. 17, 2010).. Sites Dealing with.. Striga.. At Wikipedia.. Striga asiatica.. At the Plants Profile, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.. Improved.. control in maize and.. Sorghum.. (ISCIMAS) a European Commission funded INCO-project.. A non-toxic method of controlling the noxious weed.. Strig.. a.. (using.. Fusarium oxysporum.. Evolution of the parasitic plant.. By Gerald Schneeweiss, University of Vienna.. From "Den Virtuella Floran" (The Virtual Flora).. - the broomrapes.. An article by Larry W.. Mitich (Wayback archive).. Sites Dealing with Mistletoes.. The Mistletoe Center.. This  ...   a number of Loranthaceae that serve as food plants for butterfly larvae.. The "Queen of the Parasites" sparks alot of interest and for good reason! It is, of course, the largest flower in the world and for this reason has substantial attraction to tourists in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines where it is found.. Here are a few sites dealing with this marvelous parasite:.. Wikipedia treatment of.. from ARKive.. , images of life on earth.. Julie Barcelona's site on Philippine ferns and.. life history.. From Todd Barkman's web page, Western Michigan University.. "The Stinking Corpse Lily: World's Largest Flower" on.. is #10 found.. The following article (#11) is called ".. Pilostyles.. : California Relative of Largest Flower.. " From Wayne's Word.. A newsletter of natural history trivia.. at Gunung Gading National Park, Lundu, Malaysia.. , an article by Enggoh Glak and Irwan Abdullah.. Sabah's Blossom of Hope.. Article by S.. Yoga of The Star (Malaysia).. Rediscovery Rafflesia Spp.. (not clear what this name means!) This blog seems like a compilation of everything that the author (Tun Jang) could glean from the internet, including whole pages (with photos and text) from other web sites, including the Parasitic Plant Connection! As such, this blog ends up being a bizarre collection of material.. It seems the blog stopped in 2008, so some of the material is out of date.. For example,.. banahawensis.. is listed as a species, but nowhere is told that this name is now a synonym of.. philippensis.. The section on Ecology "borrowed" pages from Parasitic Plant Connection, including a distribution map that is years old - back when we still considered.. related to.. (now Cytinaceae).. Maybe this is understood by those who view blogs - that old as well as new material is preserved.. But to the unaware, how will they distinguish between correct and incorrect information? Some of the text describing certain species (e.. rouchussenii.. hasseltii.. patma.. ) is in Indonesian.. If you don't read this language, you can use Google language tools to get a rough translation of these to English.. SIUC / College of Science / Parasitic Plant Connection / Links.. science.. edu/parasitic-plants/links.. Last updated: 08-Dec-11 / DLN..

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  • Title: Parasitic Plant Connection - PP Specialist Names & Addresses
    Descriptive info: Please send me an e-mail message.. if you would like to be added to the list! Also, let me know about any addresses that have changed.. nickrent at plant.. edu [correct at with @].. Note: all email addresses must be corrected as above.. This is being done to reduce spam.. This list is organized according to plant families.. To go quickly to a particular family, select from the following list:.. Balanophoraceae s.. lat.. (incl.. ),.. Krameriaceae.. Lauraceae (.. Rafflesiaceae s.. Cytinaceae, Apodanthaceae, Mitrastemonaceae.. Santalaceae s.. Eremolepidaceae.. Scrophulariaceae s.. UMR A-462 SAGAH Dept.. Sciences Biologiques.. Botanique - Ecologie - Malherbologie.. Institut National d'Horticulture.. 2, rue Le Nôtre.. 49045 Angers Cedex 01.. France.. Tel: 02.. 41.. 22.. 55.. 79.. Fax: 02.. 54.. 78.. Valery.. Malecot at inh.. fr.. Steven P.. Teo.. Department of Botany.. Universiti of Malaya.. 59100 Kuala Lumpur.. Malaysia.. MA 39845.. 603-756-6343 - fax.. Paul Hiepko.. Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum.. Berlin-Dahlem.. Königin-Luise-Strasse 6-8 D-1000.. Berlin 33, Germany.. p.. hiepko at bgbm.. Laurence Barea Mistlete seed dispersal, frugivore behavior, nutritional content, mistletoe specialists.. School of Environmental Sciences.. Charles Sturt University.. Thurgoona Campus.. Off Elizabeth Mitchell Drive.. O.. Box 789.. Albury NSW 2640.. Australia.. +61 2 6051 9779.. +61 2 6051 9897 (fax).. Lbarea at csu.. au.. webpage.. Bryan Barlow (retired).. Division of Plant Industry.. CSIRO, P.. Box 1600.. Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.. (062) 46-4911.. email via Val Oliver at: val.. oliver at pi.. csiro.. Peter Bernhardt -- Mistletoes.. Plant Cell Biology Centre.. School of Botany.. University of Melbourne.. Parkville, Victoria 3052.. Malcolm Calder -- Loranthaceae, Viscaceae.. Ainsley Calladine -- Loranthaceae systematics.. Plant Sciences.. James Cook University.. 4811, Australia.. ainsley.. calladine at jcu.. Clyde Calvin -- anatomy of mistletoes.. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden.. 1500 North College Avenue.. Claremont, CA 91711-3157.. clyde.. calvin at cgu.. Miguel Chazaro -- mistletoes for Flora of Veracruz, Jalisco.. Instituto de Botanica.. Universidad de Guadalajara.. Apartado Postal 139.. Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.. Paul O.. Downey -- Host-mistletoe interactions, biogeography and phytogeography Loranthaceae and Viscaceae.. CRC for Weed Management Systems.. CSIRO Entomology.. GPO Box 1700.. Canberra City.. ACT 2601.. (02) 6246 4253.. (02) 6246 4177 - fax.. paul.. downey at ento.. Rodrigo F.. Fadini - Ecology of.. Psittacanthus.. in Amazonia.. Instituto de Biodiversidade e Floresta.. Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará.. Av.. Marechal Rondon.. Santarém - PA.. Brasil.. 68040-070.. rfadini at gmail.. com.. Brian A.. Finneran - Santalales anatomy.. Department of Plant and Microbial Sciences.. University of Canterbury.. Christchurch 1 New Zealand.. 0064 3 364 2784.. b.. fineran at botn.. canterbury.. ac.. nz.. Gerhard Glatzel -- Physiologial ecology of mistletoes.. Institute of Forest Ecology.. UNI BOKU Vienna.. Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82.. A-1190 Vienna, Austria.. +43-1-47654-4101.. glatzel at woek.. boku.. at.. Donald Kirkup - Floral biology of Loranthaceae.. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.. Surrey, TW9 3AB, UK.. d.. kirkup at rbgkew.. uk.. Job Kuijt.. -- Viscaceae, Loranthaceae, all parasitic plants.. Department of Biology.. University of Victoria.. Box 3020.. Victoria, BC Canada.. V8W 3N5.. 250-721-8865.. 250-721-7120.. jkuijt at uvic.. ca.. Byron Lamont -- Loranthaceae.. West Australia Institute of Technology.. School of Biology.. GPO Box U 1987.. Perth, Western Australia 6102.. Ndjele -- Loranthaceae and Viscaceae of Central Africa.. Laboratoire de Botanique.. Universite Libre.. 28 Avenue P.. Heger.. CP 169.. 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.. David Norton Conservation and ecology of mistletoes.. Conservation Research Group.. School of Forestry.. Private Bag 4800.. Christchurch, New Zealand.. 64-3-364-2116.. 64-3-364-2124 - fax.. david.. norton at canterbury.. Hector Oliva -- Mistletoes for Flora of Veracruz.. Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas.. Universidad Veracruzana.. Apartado Postal 177.. Cordoba, Veracruz, Mexico.. Roger Polhill -- Loranthaceae (esp.. Africa).. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.. Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB U.. K.. polhill at FreeNet.. co.. Mohan Prasad Devkota -- Loranthaceae of Asia.. Univ.. f.. Bodenkultur.. Peter Jordan-Strasse 82.. 1190 Vienna, Austria.. 43-1-47654-4117.. 43-1-4797896 - fax.. mdevkota at woek.. Nick Reid -- Loranthaceae, population biology.. School of Envirnomental Sciences and Natural Resources Management.. University of New England.. Armidale, New South Wales.. 61-2-6773-2759 or.. 61-2-6773-5230.. nrei3 at metz.. une.. Carlos Reif -- Mistletoe taxonomy.. Laboratório de Angiospermas.. Instituto de Ciecias Biológicas e Ambientais.. Universidade Santa Úrsula.. Rua Fernando Ferrari 75.. Botafogo, CEP 22231-040.. Brazil.. chreif at gmaildotcom.. chreif at gmail.. Carla Restrepo - pollination, seed dispersal in Loranthaceae (South American).. University of Puerto Rico.. Rio Piedras Campus.. Po Box 23360.. San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3360.. (787) 764-0000 Ext.. 2853.. crestre at goliath.. cnnet.. clu.. edu.. N.. (Tony) Start -- biogeography and ecology of Loranthaceae.. Department of Conservation and Wildlife.. Wildlife Research Center.. Box 51.. Wanneroo.. Western Australia 6065.. (08) 9405 5100.. (08) 9306 1641 (fax).. tonys at calm.. wa.. Hugh Tan -- Loranthaceae and Viscaceae of Singapore and W.. University of Singapore.. KentRidge, Singapore 0511.. Kushan Tennakoon -- Olacaceae, Loranthaceae, Santalaceae, Hydnoraceae.. Department of Biological Sciences.. Old Dominion University.. 110 Mills Godwin Building, 49 th.. Street.. Norfolk, VA 23529 -0266.. (757 ) 683 3610.. (757) 683 5283 (fax).. ktennako at odu.. Romina Vidal-Russell -- Loranthaceae phylogeny.. Laboratorio Ecotono.. Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche.. Universidad Nacional del Comahue.. Quintral 1250 (8400) S.. de Bariloche.. Rio Negro, Argentina.. vidalr at crub.. uncoma.. a.. 54 2944 428505 Int.. 503.. 54 2944 422111 (Fax).. Hans Christian Weber -- Mistletoes, broomrapes, dodder, heterotrophs, etc.. Fachbereich Biologie.. Philipps-Universität.. D-350-32, Germany.. 49-(0)6421-282091.. 49-(0)6421-282057.. weberh at mailer.. uni-marburg.. de.. Jan Wieringa -- Plants in general (Loranthaceae, Olacaceae, etc.. ).. Plant Sciences - Biosystematics Group.. Building number 351.. Gen.. Foulkesweg 37.. 6703 BL.. Wageningen, The Netherlands.. Jan.. Wieringa at wur.. nl.. Carol Wilson -- mistletoe systematics.. carol.. wilson at cgu.. David M Watson -- Loranthaceae.. School of Environmental and Information Sciences.. Bathurst NSW 2795 Australia.. (02) 6051 9621.. Fax: (02) 6051 9897.. dwatson at csu.. Jorge Crisci -- Misodendraceae.. Museo de Ciencias Naturales.. Universidad nacional de La Plata.. 1900 La Plata, Argentina.. crisci%lasbe.. ar at uunet.. uu.. net.. Romina Vidal-Russell -- Misodendraceae phylogeny.. Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche,.. Carlos A.. Zavaro -- Misodendraceae.. Departamento de Plantas Vasculares.. Instituto de Ecologia Sistematica.. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.. Carretera de Varona Km 3.. 5.. P.. 10800, A.. 8010.. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.. Santalaceae (including Eremolepidaceae).. Miguel Angel García -.. Thesium.. systematics and phylogenetics.. Departamento Biodiversidad y Conservación.. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC.. Plaza de Murillo 2.. 28014 Madrid, Spain.. 011-34-91-420 30 17.. mgarcia at ma-rjb.. csic.. es.. J.. Lepschi - Santalaceae -.. Leptomeria.. Australian National Herbarium.. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research.. GPO Box 1600.. Canberra ACT 2601 AUSTRALIA.. 61 (02) 6246 5167.. 61 (02) 6246 5249 (fax).. Lepschi at pi.. Michael Nee -- Santalaceae of S.. America.. New York Botanical Garden.. Bronx, NY 10458-5126.. mnee at nybg.. Wendy Seel - Physiology ecology of host-parasite interactions in Scrophulariaceae Santalaceae.. University of Aberdeen.. Department of Plant and Soil Science.. Cruickshank Building.. St.. Machar Drive.. Aberdeen AB24 3UU.. Scotland.. +44 (0)1224 272691.. +44 (0)1224 272703 (Fax).. bot134 at abdn.. Kushan Tennakoon -- Olacaceae, Loranthaceae, Santalaceae.. University of Peradeniya.. Peradeniya.. Sri Lanka.. + 94 (0)8 389130 / 389151.. + 94 (0)8 388018 / 389027 - fax.. kushan at botany.. pdn.. lk.. Vanessa E.. T.. Ashworth --.. molecular systematics.. Editor-in-Chief, ALISO.. vanessa.. ashworth at cgu..  ...   Department.. 75 University Ave N.. Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3C5, Canada.. mcostea at wlu.. 519-884-0710 ext.. 3407.. Jean H.. Dawson -- Cuscuta control Weed Scientist (retired).. U.. Agriculture.. Agricultural Research Service.. Washington State University.. Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center Prosser Washington, 99350.. Phone: 011-34-91-420 30 17.. Haidar --.. Associate Professor of Weed Ecophysiology.. American University of Beirut.. Beirut, Lebanon.. mhaidar at aub.. lb.. Kristin Lewis -- Chemical ecology of parasitic plant associations (.. Castilleja.. Rowland Institute at Harvard.. Harvard University.. 100 Edwin H.. Land Blvd.. Cambridge, MA 02142.. 617-497-4683.. 617-497-4627 (Fax).. lewis at rowland.. Joel R.. McNeal --.. molecular systematics and evolution.. University of Georgia.. Athens, GA 30602.. jmcneal at plantbio.. uga.. Leebens-Mack Lab.. Ray Neyland --.. ITS.. McNeese State University.. Lake Charles, LA 70609.. rneyland at acc.. mcneese.. Gerhard Prenner --.. Cuscuta.. floral biology.. Institute for Plant Sciences.. Karl-Franzens-University Graz.. Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz.. +0043-316-380-5662.. +0043-316-380-9883 (fax).. gerhard.. prenner at uni-graz.. Susanna Puustinen -- Host interactions,.. and.. Rhinathus.. University of Joensuu.. Box 111.. FIN-80101 Joensuu,.. Finland.. +358-13-251 4550.. +358-50-3511513 (mobile phone).. +358-13-251 3590 (fax).. puustine at joyx.. joensuu.. fi.. Mr.. Saffour Kaddour - Orobanchaceae and Cuscutaceae.. Laboratoire de Malherbologie.. INRA - B.. P 578.. Meknès, Morocco.. 00 212 55300243 (office).. 00 212 55 300244 (fax).. k.. saffour at caramail.. Sasa Stefanovic -- Convolvulaceae (.. ) molecular systematics.. University of Toronto at Mississauga.. 3359 Mississauga Road.. Mississauga, ON, Canada L5L 1C6.. (905) 569-4271; lab (905) 569-4276.. (905) 828-3792 (fax).. sstefano at utm.. utoronto.. Tom van der Kooij -.. Botanisches Institut.. Universität Kiel.. Olshausenstraße 40.. D-24098 Kiel.. + 49 (0) 431 880 4234.. + 49 (0) 431 880 4238 - fax.. tkooij at bot.. uni-kiel.. Philip Baker --.. reproductive biology.. California State University.. Long Beach, CA 909840.. (310) 985-4917.. Beryl Simpson --.. , monographic and molecular systematics.. Biology 308.. The University of Texas.. Austin, TX 78713.. (512) 471-7335.. beryl at mail.. utexas.. Henk Van der Werff -- New World Lauraceae.. Missouri Botanical Garden.. Box 299.. Louis, MO 63166.. vanderwe at mobot.. George Yatskievych -- Lennoaceae.. (314) 577-9522.. george.. yatskievych at mobot.. Emmanuel Aigbokhan -- Orobanchaceae (Striga species).. Department of Plant Biology Biotechnology.. Faculty of Life Sciences, University ob Benin.. M.. B 1154, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.. +234-805-662-7914.. eaigb001 at yahoo.. Turner Collins -- Orobanchaceae taxonomy.. Department of Science Technology.. Evangel University.. Springfield, Missouri, 65802.. (417) 865-2815, ext.. 8316.. collinst at evangel.. Alison Colwell -- Scrophulariaceae, Orobanchaceae, molecular systematics.. The Western Fisheries Research Center.. Biological Research Division, USGA.. Seattle, WA 98195.. (206) 526-6282 ext.. 329 (office) ext.. 271 (lab).. Alison_Colwell at usgs.. Jose Cubero --.. Departamento de Genetica.. Universidad de Cordoba.. Apartado 3048.. Cordoba, Spain.. ge1cusaj at uco.. Claude dePamphilis -- Scrophulariaceae, Orobanchaceae, molecular systematics.. The Pennsylvania State University.. 208 Mueller Laboratory.. University Park, PA 16802.. (814) 863-6412.. (814) 865-9131 (fax).. cwd3 at psu.. Mark Egger -- Orobanchaceae.. WTU Herbarium/Burke Museum.. Box 355325.. Seattle, WA 98195-5325, U.. A.. 206-526-8110.. m.. egger at comcast.. Flickr pages.. for many photos of genera in this family, as well as important taxonomic and life history information.. Yaakov Goldwasser --.. Department of Vegatable Crops.. University of California.. Davis, CA 95616-8746.. (530) 752-8161.. gold at vegmail.. ucdavis.. Bettina I.. G.. Haussmann -- Sorghum resistance to.. Striga hermonthica.. University of Hohenheim.. Inst.. 350/3.. D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.. +49-711-459 4293.. +49-711-459 2343 (fax).. haussb at uni-hohenheim.. Thomas Housley, -- Scrophulariaceae, Orobanchaceae.. Agronomy Department.. Purdue University.. West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150.. (765) 494-4972.. (765) 496-2926 (fax).. thousley at dept.. agry.. purdue.. Shu-Chuan Hsiao --.. Aeginetia indica.. Danny Joel --.. Agricultural Research Organization.. Newe-Ya'ar Research Center.. Agricultural Reseach Organization.. Box 1021.. Ramat-Yishay 30095, Israel.. (972) 4- 953-9529.. (972) 4- 983-6936.. dmjoel at netvision.. il.. Olaf Klein - Biological control of Orobanche (Phytomyza orobanchia).. Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics.. D-70593 Stuttgart.. ot.. klein at gmx.. Eric Kuiper --.. genetic variability.. Department of Ecology and Ecotoxicology.. Vrije Universiteit.. De Boelelaan 1087.. 1081 HV Amesterdam, The Netherlands.. (31) 20-444-7046.. webpage: "Parasitic Weed Research in Amsterdam".. Sarah Mathews - Molecular phylogenetics Orobanchaceae.. Harvard University Herbaria.. 22 Divinity Avenue.. Cambridge Massachusetts 02138.. (617) 495-2331.. Kamal I.. Mohamed --.. (invasive potential, molecular biology).. 220 Piez Hall.. State University of New York.. Oswego, NY 13126.. mohamed at oswego.. 315 312 2785 or 3031.. 315 312 3059 (fax).. Jeffery Morawetz -- molecular systematics and evolution of Orobanchaceae.. University of Michigan.. 2010B Kraus Natural Science Building.. 830 N.. University.. Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048.. morawetz at umich.. (734) 936-3335.. 734) 763-0544 (Fax).. Chris Parker -.. control.. co-editor of.. Haustorium.. newsletter.. 5 Royal York Crescent.. Bristol BS8 4JZ, UK.. chrisparker5 at compuserve.. Malcolm C.. Press - ecology and physiology of parasitic plants,.. Head of College of Life and Environmental Sciences.. University of Birmingham.. Birmingham.. B15 2TT.. UK.. +44 (0)121 414 3344.. c.. press at bham.. Susanna Puustinen - - Host-parasite interactions,.. Rhinanthus.. Christopher P.. Randle -- Orobanchaceae.. Sam Houston State University.. 1900 Avenue I (P.. Box 2116).. Huntsville, TX 77340.. 936-294-1554.. randle at shsu.. Fasil Reda -.. research.. Free University, Faculty of Biology,.. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology,.. De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam,.. The Netherlands.. freda at bio.. vu.. Home address.. :.. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization.. Box - 2003.. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.. Gerald M.. Schneeweiss -- Systematics of.. Department of Plant Biogeography.. Rennweg 14.. A-1030 Wien.. 0043 1 4277 54062.. 0043 1 4277 9541 (Fax).. gerald.. schneeweiss at univie.. Julie Scholes -- Biology of.. Animal and Plant Sciences.. The University of Sheffield.. Western Bank.. Sheffield.. S10 2TN.. 44 (0)114 222 4780.. 44 (0)114 222 0002 (Fax).. j.. scholes at sheffield.. Wendy Seel -- Physiology ecology of host-parasite interactions in Scrophulariaceae Santalaceae.. Kim E.. Steiner -- Scrophulariaceae.. Botany Department.. California Academy of Sciences.. Golden Gate State Park.. San Francisco, CA 94118-4599.. (415) 750-7193,.. ksteiner at calacademy.. David Tank -- Orobanchaceae phylogeny.. Director, Stillinger Herbarium.. Department of Forest Resources.. University of Idaho.. PO Box 441133.. Moscow, Idaho 83844-1133.. (208) 885-7033.. dtank at uidaho.. Jos Verkleij -- Head of Section Ecotoxicology and Ecogenetics.. (31) 20-444-7054.. Christophe Veronesi - Scrophulariaceae.. Laboratoire de Physiologie et Pathologie Vegetales.. Universite de Nantes.. 2, rue de la Houssiniere.. 44 322 Nantes, France.. (33) 02 51 12 56 19.. (33) 02 51 12 56 12 - Fax.. Christophe.. Veronesi at svt.. univ-nantes.. Klaus Wegmann - Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae.. University of Tübingen.. Waldhäuserstraße 37.. D-72076 Tübingen.. 49 7071 64658.. 49 7071 689555 - fax.. Wegmann-Tuebingen at t-online.. de or.. klaus.. wegmann at uni-tuebingen.. James H.. Westwood -- molecular biology of parasitism in.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.. Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science.. 410 Price Hall (0331).. Blacksburg, VA 24061.. (540) 231-7519.. (540) 231-7477 - fax.. westwood at vt.. Andrea Wolfe -- Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae, molecular systematics evolution.. Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology.. Ohio State University.. 318 Aronoff Laboratory.. 318 W.. 12th Avenue.. Columbus, OH 43221.. (614) 292-0267.. (614) 292-2030 - fax.. wolfe.. 205 at osu.. (older).. George Yatskievych -- Orobanchaceae.. John Yoder -- Scrophulariaceae.. (916) 752-1741.. jiyoder at ucdavis.. SIUC / College of Science / The Parasitic Plant Connection / People.. edu/people.. Last updated: 23-Jul-11 / dln..

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  • Title: Terms List
    Descriptive info: Terms Associated with Parasitic Plants.. This list does not include general morphological, anatomical, taxonomic, genetic, and ecological terms commonly applied to all angiosperms but focuses upon those terms specific to parasitic plants.. Also included are some terms that are often erroneously associated with parasitic plants.. Example photographs illustrating the terms are provided.. Autoparasite.. A parasitic plant that attaches by means of haustoria to its own tissues.. Commonly seen in.. , and seedlings of Loranthaceae (.. Autotrophic.. Capable of feeding oneself, i.. photosynthetic plants.. Calyculus.. A reduced calyx in various Santalales (e.. Schoepfiaceae, Loranthaceae).. Usually present as a toothed, shortly lobed or entire rim around the summit of the ovary.. See.. that shows a calyculus as a lobed sheath crowing the the inferior ovary.. Cataphyll.. The first-formed, foliar organs (leaves) of the hypocotyl or branch meristems in some members of Santalales (e.. Olacaceae, Loranthaceae, Viscaceae).. This example of cataphylls in.. reichenbachianum.. ?) has basal cataphylls on the lateral branches as well as pairs of intercallary cataphylls located more distally on those branches.. Cortical Strand.. See endophyte.. Diaphragm.. The centrally located aperture that occurs at the apex of the perigone tube in.. (but not.. Rhizanthes.. Ectophyte.. The aerial parts of a parasitic plant (e.. stem, leaves, flowers) that occur outside the host plant; cf.. the internal endophyte.. Endophyte.. The portion of the haustorium that occurs inside the host tissue.. For viscaceous mistletoes, it may be composed of cortical strands that occur within the inner bark and sinkers that are oriented radially and traverse the xylem.. diagram.. of broom types in.. and anatomical section showing sinkers in.. Arceuthobium pusillum.. Epicortical Root.. In mistletoes, adventitious roots (arising from the parasite stem) that traverse the host bark, eventually establishing secondary haustorial connections.. Examples:.. Dendropemon.. Bakerella.. Notanthera.. Plicosepalus.. Epiparasite.. One parasitic plant that forms an obligate haustorial attachment to another parasitic plant.. Example:.. Phoradendron scabberimum.. on.. longifolium.. See also hyperparasite.. Epiphytism.. One plant (the "host") used for physical support by another plant.. Aerial parasites such as mistletoes can also be considered epiphytes.. But, not all epipytes are parasites! For example, this.. slide.. shows both orchid (.. Oncidium.. ) and bromeliad (.. Tillandsia.. ) epiphytes from Andros Island, Bahamas, neither of which draw nutrients directly from their hosts (they lack haustorial connections).. Facultative Parasite.. A hemiparasitic plant that does not require a host to complete its life cycle.. Note, however, that in nature, parasitism is nearly always observed.. Many members of Orobanchaceae are facultative hemiparasites such as.. Agalinis.. Aureolaria.. Seymeria.. The morphologically modified root which physically connects the parasite to the host.. May be a primary haustorium if the radicle apex is directly transformed into a haustorium (e.. ) or a secondary haustorium formed from tissues other than the radicle apex such as secondary root apices or from lateral positions on the root (e.. Ximenia.. Dasistoma.. The haustoria of holoparasites are more complex (see.. Conopholis.. Balanophora.. , ).. image.. showing many types of haustoria.. Hemiparasite.. A parasite that is photosynthetic (during at least one stage of its life cycle).. It obtains water and nutrients from the host xylem.. Some advanced hemiparasites (e.. dwarf mistletoes) also obtain photosynthates from the host phloem.. Hemiparasites can be either facultative (e.. many Orobanchaceae) or obligate (e.. mistletoes).. Figure of Holo- and Hemiparasites.. Heterotrophic.. Referring to organisms that do not produce their own food (thus are nonphotosynthetic).. Such organisms must then obtain organic compounds from exogenous sources.. In the case of parasitic plants, this is another plant.. Contrast with autotrophic.. Many forms of heterotrophism exist such as saprophytism,.. mycoheterotropism.. , and parasitism.. Holdfast.. In some mistletoes, a disc-like swelling at the end of the radicle that forms the first attachment to the host.. In this example of an autoparasitic.. seedling, the holdfast is present and a young epicortical root is emerging from it.. Holoparasite.. A nonphotosynthetic parasite that obtains water and nutrients from the host xylem and photosynthates from the host phloem.. Holoparasitism has evolved ten times in  ...   may also see these plants.. called myco-heterotrophic epiparasites.. or.. ectomycorrhizal epiparasites.. For more on these plants frequently mistaken as haustorial parasites, see the ".. Strange and Wonderful Mycoheterotrophs.. Nodules.. Many angiosperms, especially legumes, are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by enlisting the help of a symbiotic bacterium.. These bacteria live in special bumps on the plant roots which are called.. nodules.. The most common type of bacterium to form nodules is the genus.. Rhizobium.. Root nodules are sometimes confused with parasitic plant haustoria.. Obligate Parasite.. A plant that must attach to a host to complete its life cycle.. All holoparasites are obligate whereas only some hemiparasites are obligate such as mistletoes and.. Parasite.. A symbiotic association whereby an organism obtains at least some of its nutrition directly from another organism.. In plants, a restrictive definition includes only parasites with haustorial connections to other plants, not myco-heterotrophs.. See also hemiparasite, holoparasite, facultative parasite and obligate parasite.. Pathogen.. A parasite that has clear detrimental effects on the host plant.. Examples of plant pathogens include.. In contrast, many haustorial parasites result in such small negative effects as to approach a commensalistic relationship.. For example, beechdrops (.. ) is a parasite on beech trees but cannot really be called a pathogen.. Perigone.. In some members of Rafflesiaceae (.. , Sapria.. ), the perianth is referred to as the perigone.. It is composed of a perigone tube and perigone lobes.. Resistance.. A feature or features of a plant that prevent it from serving as a host to a parasitic plant.. This resistance may be manifested prior to or after initial haustorial attachment.. Root Grafting.. Adjacent roots of the same or different woody plants can become attached by means of cambial growth.. Saprophytism.. An organism that obtains its food from decaying organic matter.. Technically, no flowering plants are saprophytes, only fungi.. See myco-heterotrophism.. Sinker.. Susceptible.. A feature or features of a plant that allow it to serve as a host to a parasitic plant.. Symbiosis.. A general biological term referring to at least two organisms living together.. The participants are called symbionts.. Includes more specific associations such as parasitism, mutualism, neutralism (parasymbiosis), commensalism, etc.. Systemic infection.. An infection of a host by a parasitic plant whereby the growth of the endophyte keeps pace with the growth of the host meristem.. Also called isophasic growth.. Can be seen in some dwarf mistletoes (.. douglasii.. ) and.. Viscin.. A complex material covering the seeds of most mistletoes.. Composed of two parts: 1) a mucilaginous pectic material that accounts for the stickiness and water-holding capacity of the viscin (oligo-D-galacturonic acid and 2) helical strands composed of cellulose.. See Paquet et al.. (1986, Bot.. Gaz.. 147:156-158).. Phoradendron serotinum.. Witches' broom.. An dense aggregation of host branches that is hormonally induced by the presence of fungal or mistletoes such as.. Sometimes simply called a "broom.. " In Arceuthobium, two basic types occur: nonsystemic brooms, such as in.. campylopodum.. (=.. A tsugense.. where the parasite endophyte does not ramify within the host tissue and systemic brooms, as in.. pusillum.. where the endophyte meristem occurs near and divides in synchrony with the host meristem.. Woodrose.. A distortion of the host secondary xylem (wood) induced by a parasitic plant haustorium.. The haustorium causes the host cambium to increase the amount of wood deposited resulting in a placenta-like structure.. The shape of the woodrose will vary depending upon the parasite/host combination and may assume a columnar, conical or saddle shape.. When the parasite tissue dies away, all that is left is the host xylem, hence woodroses are made up entirely of host tissue.. In the Old and New World tropics, mistletoe woodroses are sold as curiosities and are often carved into ornate works of art.. This photo.. shows a woodrose formed by an unidentified member of Loranthaceae and a carving of a lizard made from a similar one.. Woodroses are even formed by the balanophoraceous holoparasite.. edu/terms.. Last updated: 27-Sep-11 / dln..

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